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EASTERN TIMBER WOLF 
RECOVERY PLAN 



Prepared by Eastern Timber 
Wolf Recovery Team 



Team Leader: 

Mr. Ralph Bailey, Michigan Department of Natural Resources 

Members : 

Dr. L. David Mech, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Mr. William C. Hickling, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Mr. Ron Nicotera, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources 

Mr. LeRoy Rutske, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources 

Mr. Robert M. Linn, National Park Service 

Mr. Robert E. Radtke, U.S. Forest Service 

Mr. Karl Siderits, U.S. Forest Service 




PL - or- ir 

Date 



- 




United States Department of the Interior 

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20210 



ADDRESS ONLY THE DIREOOJt, 
FISH AND WILKTf'MERyic/ 



In Reply Refer To: 
FWS/OES 310.6 



Memorandum 






MAY 2 1978 



To: Regional Director - Region 3 

From: Director 

Subject: Eastern Timber Wolf Recovery Plan 



Based upon your memorandum of March 10, 1978, requesting a decision, 
we approve the Eastern Timber Wolf Recovery Plan after incorporation of 
our comments dated December 9, 1977. 

This plan, as with all Recovery Plans, is a dynamic document and should 

be revised as necessary as stated in the Guidelines. "Each plan will 

be updated as needed to incorporate new facts, techniques, and objectives." 

You may disregard the last paragraph in our December 9 memorandum and 
forward 25 copies of the completed plan to us for dissemination at the 
Washington level. 




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United States Department of the Interior 



ADDRESS ONLY THE DIRECTOR. 
FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 



FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20240 



In Reply Refer To: 

FWS/OES 310.6 KC 9 iW 



Memorandum 

To: Regional Director, Region 3 

Acting 
From: Director 

Subject: Eastern Timber Wolf Recovery Plan 



We have reviewed the subject plan and are providing the following 
comments for consideration in the "Agency Review Draft". 

General Comments 

We agree with your third paragraph on page 8 regarding the importance 
of a public information program. In fact, we believe that one 
objective in the step-down outline should be the development of such 
a program. Then all of the Information and Education factors which are 
fragmented throughout the plan could be concentrated and emphasized 
under one objective. 

The Recovery Plan indicates on page 2 that human exploitation caused 
the reduction of the Eastern Timber Wolf population in the United 
States. Therefore, it would seem that people management would be the 
primary program needed to restore the wolf. However, the main 
emphasis of the plan seems to be on increasing the prey base by 
timber cutting, controlled burning, and the re establishment of the 
woodland caribou. The conduct of these operations in sufficient 
magnitude to have any appreciable effect on the wolf population may 
be cost prohibitive. 

We doubt that additional research on the ecology, behavior, and 
habitat requirements of deer, moose, and beaver (#122-4 in step-down 
outline) would contribute materially to the recovery of the wolf. 



Specific Comments 

Page 5, first full paragraph, first sentence (4) - change the word 
"if" to "when". 

Pags 6, top of page - Replace the words "along with big game...." 
with the words "and consumptive and non- consumptive uses of -the 
wildlife resources". 

Page 6, second full paragraph - Delete last two sentences. 

Page 7 - Delete this section. This recommendation should not be 
included in the Recovery Plan. It should be a separate action. The 
plan may reflect the need for consideration of reclassification. 

Page 8, second paragraph, last sentence - Delete the words "Prudence 
dictates", capitalize "a", add the words "should be taken" after 
"approach". 

Page 8, third paragraph, last sentence - Add the word "expected" 
after "the". 

Page 10, number one - These population levels should be broken down 
and quantified. 

Page 13, number 122-62 - Rewrite. For example, "Federal agencies 
will prepare Environmental Assessments and/or Environmental Impact 
Statements to evaluate project impacts on the wolf and initiate 
Section 7 Consultation on public lands." 

Page 12, number 122-225 - This objective should be deleted or clarified 
to agree with number 122-222. 

Page 15, number 22 - Rewrite. "Determine the feasibility of re- 
establishing E.T.W.". 

Page 15, number 222 - Delete the words "and permit". 

Page 15, number 23 - Add "through the use of related or non-related 
wolves". 

Page 15, number 231 - Change "hearings" to "meetings". 

Page 15 - Add number 233, "Obtain permit from appropriate State and 
Federal agencies". Renumber accordingly. 



Page 30 - Remove reference to "Critical Habitat". The Recovery Plan 
is not to be used for Critical Habitat recommendations. It may 
identify habitat essential to the survival of the species but Critical 
Habitat recommendations should be made separate from Recovery Plans. 

We hope these comments will assist in completing the plan. Please 
forward the plan with letters of concurrence from implementing agencies 
and a title page for the Director's signature to signify approval. 





May 16, 1978 



Mr. Jack E. Hemphill 
Regional Director 
U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service 
Federal Building, Ft. Snelling 
Twin Cities, MN 55111 

Dear Mr. Hemphill: 

Thank you for the December 9, 1977 review of our draft recovery plan for the 
eastern timber wolf. Following is our itemized response: 

General Comments 

First paragraph - The development of an I & E program is considered in the 
stepdown outline; see item 121 and sub-items. 

Second paragraph - We do not agree that because people problems caused wolf 
reduction "the primary program needed to restore the wolf" is people manage- 
ment. The team feels strongly that the nature of the wolf is such that it 
cannot inhabit areas of high human density regardless of any reasonable 
"people management" program. Therefore we emphasized preservation of the 
wolf in wild and inaccessible areas. This emphasis further supports the need 
for increasing the wolf's prey base in such areas. In many cases, coordina- 
tion of timber management programs is not prohibitive in cost and does offer 
opportunities for habitat improvement. 

Third paragraph - Because of the considerations discussed in paragraph 2, 
the team strongly believes that increased research on wolf prey would contri- 
bute materially to the recovery of the wolf. 



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Specific Comments - We accept the revisions in the December 9, 1977 memo with 
the following specific exceptions: 

"Page 6, second full paragraph - Delete last two sentences." These 
sentences are important in completing the ideas put forth by the para- 
graph, namely, that deer, wolves, and deer hunters all benefit from 
habitat improvement. The last sentence deals with legal responsibility 
of non-endangered species belonging to the state. There may be disagree- 
ment on this item on a federal level, but the team feels very strongly on 
this issue. 

"Page 7, delete this section." We cannot understand the rationale here. 
The team feels that this recommendation is a basic part of the plan. In 
fact, the Service has already adopted it. As of the date this plan was 
written page 7 was a basic part of the plan and should remain so until 
the first update. 

"Page 10, number one - These population levels be broken down and quanti- 
fied." This is in the plan - see 122-1, 122-2 and 123. 

"Page 12, No. 122-225 - This objective should be deleted or clarified to 
agree with 122-222." These two items are both basic to 122-2 (Habitat). 
122-222 deals with general improvement of hardwoods and conifers while 
122-225 deals with winter habitat for deer and moose. These two items 
are independent of each other. 

"Page 15, number 23 - Add 'use of related or non-related wolves'." The 
team believes this was in error and should read "through the use of packs 
or non-related wolves." 

"Page 15, add 233, 'Obtain permit from appropriate State and Federal 
agencies'. Renumber accordingly." The team feels that state permits 
should stay under 222 rather than renumber several items to include per- 
mits under a separate number. The team is not adamant on this item. 

"Page 30 - Remove reference to 'critical habitat'." The team was very 
careful not to mention "critical habitat" in this section. The plan does 
mention essential habitat and this is exactly what the team's intention 
was with this section. 

Sincerely yours, 




talph E. Bailey^ 
Team Leader 



PREFACE 



This Recovery Plan for the Eastern Timber Wolf was prepared by the Eastern 
Timber Wolf Recovery Team appointed by the Director of the U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service. It is the result of a series of seven separate meetings 
of the team of from one to three days each, much correspondence, and hours 
and hours of individual effort on the part of team members. 

Our charge, as we understood it, was to devise an ecologically sound plan 
for the maintenance, enhancement and recovery of this subspecies throughout 
as much of its present and former range as feasible. We were to produce a 
plan that would be "a guide that delineates and schedules those actions re- 
quired for securing or restoring an Endangered or Threatened species as a 
viable self-sustaining member of its ecosystem". Furthermore, we were 
instructed to produce a purely biologically based plan and to disregard 
possible political or social considerations. This we have done. Of course, 
wjth the wolf, which can interact with the interests of human beings, some 
biological considerations also have non-biological aspects. In such cases, 
there was no way to avoid considering these complex issues, for ultimately 
they could have a biological effect on the wolf population. Administrators 
involved with plan implementation will have to weigh social and political 
consideration at the appropriate time. 

Review of the plan is called for annually, and revisions will be made as 
necessary. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PART 



PART I I . 
PART III, 



PART IV. 
APPENDIX A. 

APPENDIX B. 
APPENDIX C, 
APPENDIX D, 
APPENDIX E 
APPENDIX F 



Page 

INTRODUCTION 1 

Life History 1 

Present Range 2 

Range Restrictions k 

Critical Factors k 

RECOMMENDED CLASSIFICATION 7 

PLAN OBJECTIVES AND RATIONALE 8 

Recovery Plan Outline 10 

Recovery Plan Diagram 17 

Schedule of Priorities, Responsibilities and Costs. ... 18 

Checklist of Necessary Actions 26 

CRITICAL AREAS 30 

DESCRIPTION OF ZONES 31 

MAP OF ZONES 34 

QUANTITATIVE DESCRIPTION OF ZONES 35 

PAST, PRESENT AND POTENTIAL EASTERN TIMBER WOLF RANGE . . k2 

BACKGROUND DATA 46 

MINORITY REPORT 56 

CORRESPONDENCE 59 

LITERATURE CITED 78 



II 
II 



PART 



INTRODUCTION 



The Eastern Timber Wolf ( Canis Lupus lycaon ) of eastern North America is 
one of 32 subspecies or geographic races of the gray wolf, 2k of which 
originally inhabited North America (Mech 1970). An increasing number of 
taxonomists believe that too many subspecies of North American wolves are 
recognized, and that the present number should be reduced (Rausch 1953, 
Jolicoeur 1959, Kelsall 1968, Mech 1 97^a) . Nevertheless, the latest 
published taxonomic revisions still recognize the Eastern Timber Wolf 
as a separate subspecies. 

Originally, the Eastern Timber Wolf occurred throughout most of the eastern 
United States and southeastern Canada (Appendix B) . At present, the U. S. 
population remains only in Minnesota, Michigan and Wisconsin, comprising 
about 3% of its original range. The subspecies is still common throughout 
most of its original Canadian range. In 1967, the Eastern Timber Wolf 
was listed by the U. S. Secretary of the Interior as "endangered" in the 
U. S. The Superior National Forest lands of Minnesota were closed to the 
taking of wolves in 1970, and in August 197^, the subspecies was legally 
protected by the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973- Wolves had been 
protected by State law in Michigan since 1 965 and in Wisconsin since 1957- 

Li fe History 



The following information about the Eastern Timber Wolf was condensed 
from Mech (1970, 197*»a) . 

Eastern Timber Wolves generally weigh 50 to 100 pounds in adulthood with 
males averaging heavier than females. They are usually mixed gray, but 
a small percentage are black or white (Mech and Frenzel 1971). Most 
wolves live in family groups or packs consisting of 2 to 8 members, 
although packs of up to 21 have been reported. 

Each pack inhabits an area of 50 to 120 square miles or more and tends to 
be territorial. There is a dominance hierarchy within each pack, and 
usually only the top ranking male and female breed. Pups are produced in 
late April or early May, and under good conditions litter sizes average 5, 
with heavily exploited populations producing an average of 6.5 young. 
Some pups remain with the pack, and others leave the territory before or 
upon maturing. These independent animals become lone wolves and either 
live nomadically over areas of 1,000 square miles or more, or disperse 
out of the area, sometimes as much as 130 miles. If they find a member 
of the opposite sex and suitable range unoccupied by other wolves, they 
may settle down, mate, and begin their own pack. 

Generally the prey of Eastern Timber wolves consists of white-tailed deer 



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(O docoi 1 eus vi rgi n ianus ) , moose ( Al ces alces ) or beaver ( Castor canadens i s ) , 
but they will also take domestic animals including dogs, sheep and cattle. 
Several studies indicate that generally wolves tend to kill old, sick, 
weak or disabled prey, and that the predators are not instrumental in 
causing prey declines. However, recently the wolf has been implicated 
in accenting a deer decline in Minnesota that apparently began as a 
result of deteriorating range and a series of hard winters (Mech, 1976; 
Hoskinson and Mech, 1976; Mech and Karns, submitted). Many human beings 
who live in wolf range resent the animal's predation on livestock and big 
game, and persecute wolves because of it, even despite State and Federal 
protective laws (Weise et al. 1975). 

According to Goldman (19^4) and Mech (1970), the reduction of the Eastern 
Timber Wolf population in the U. S. was caused by the following: (1) 
intensive human settlement of the land, (2) direct conflict with domestic 
livestock, (3) a lack of understanding about the animal's ecology and 
habits, (k) fears and superstitions about the animal, and (5) overzealous 
control programs designed to exterminate it. 



Present Range 



Thus, at present, the Eastern Timber Wolf in the U. S. is restricted to 
the northwestern corner of its original range, an area contiguous to the 
Canadian population and one of short growing season, rocky outcrops, 
muskeg, infertile soil, and low human density. The value of the wolf's 
present range for livestock production varies from zero to marginal. 
Within this region, the approximate number of wolves remaining in specific 
areas correlates well with the low density of humans in those areas (Weise 
et al . 1975)- Wisconsin reports scattered wolf signs and sightings 
(Anderson and Thiel, 1975) and in August 1975, a wolf was killed by a car 
in Wisconsin near the Minnesota border. In Upper Michigan, an estimated 
6 to 1C animals remain (Hendrickson et al . 1975), although more recent 
reports indicate these figures may be low (R. E. Bailey, personal communi- 
cation). In Isle Royale National Park, Lake Superior, approximately ^+0 
wolves inhabited some 210 square miles in 1975 (Peterson and Allen 1 975) - 
Northern Minnesota, being closest to the Canadian population and having the 
lowest human population density, harbors the most wolves. (Appendix B.) 

A main focus, then, of this Recovery Plan, is on Minnesota. The wolf 
situation in that State is complex. When the Eastern Timber Wolf was 
placed on the secretary's list, little was known about the status of the 
animal in Minnesota. An estimated 350 to 700 individuals were thought to 
exist there, and their numbers were considered to be static or decreasing 
(Cahalane 1964). Since then, an intensive research program has been 
conducted on the wolf in that State, and a much clearer picture of the 
animal's status and ecology there has emerged (Mech and Frenzel 1971; 
Mech 1972, 1973, 1974b, 1975, 1976; Van Ballenberghe and Mech 1975; Van 
Ballenberghe et al. 1975; Seal et al . 1975). 



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Some 31,000 square miles of wolf range generally have been recognized in 
Minnesota, with 10,000 square miles being considered primary range. However, 
reappraisal of these ranges by the Team and careful measurement of the areas 
involved indicates that the wolf range should be redefined into five areas. 
We have designated two northeast areas of primary range, Zone 1 comprising 
k, kG2 square miles and Zone 2 comprising 1 , 864 square miles; one northwest 
area of primary range, Zone 3 comprising 3,501 square miles; and one area 
of peripheral range, Zone 4 comprising 20,901 square miles, (see Appendix A) 

The northeast section of the primary range, which includes most of the 
Superior National Forest and its officially designated wilderness, the 
Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) , recently appeared to be supporting as 
many wolves as it could ever support. This was certainly true of most of 
the Forest, where there were an estimated 400 wolves in winter 1971"72, 
or one wolf per 10 square miles (Mech 1973). Since then, however, the 
wolf population in the 1,000 square mile intensive sampling area of the 
Forest has declined by about k0% to one wolf per 17 square miles in 197^~ 
75 (Mech, submitted), due to a drastic decline in numbers of deer (Mech 
and Karns, submitted). By 1975~76, however, they had increased by about 
31% (Mech, submitted). Indications are that the number of wolves in the 
rest of the Forest have fluctuated similarly, although not necessarily to 
the same degree. 

In the northwest section of primary range, wolf numbers have been low in 
recent years, but now appear to be increasing, probably as a result of 
the legal protection afforded by the Endangered Species Act of 1973- In 
winter 197^~75, there were an estimated 35 wolves present in a 1,000 
square mile intensive sampling area in that section, or one wolf per 30 
square miles (Fritts, unpublished). Prey populations appear to be ade- 
quate there to support more wolves, and wolf numbers are increasing. 

The peripheral range generally lies south of the primary range, includes 
a much higher density of roads, farms and other human activities and 
constructions, and is highly accessible. There are few, if any, areas 
in the peripheral range that are not within 3 miles of developed roads. 
The density of wolves in the peripheral range is lower and much more 
variable than in the primary range. Unfortunately, less research has 
been conducted there, so density estimates are more speculative. All that 
is known is that wolves do occur throughout the area and that in one 100 
square mile area southeast of Grand Rapids, the wolf density in 197^-75 
was one per 13 square miles (Berg, unpublished). 

Because of the settled nature of the peripheral range, it is the Team's 
opinion that attempts to maximize wolf numbers should be restricted to 
the primary range and that wolf populations in the peripheral range should 
be held at an average of one wolf per 50 square miles. 

The variability and dynamic nature of wolf densities throughout various 
parts of northern Minnesota make it extremely difficult to arrive at an 



I 



accurate estimate of wolf numbers. Nevertheless, the Team believes the 
actual number of wolves in Minnesota is between 1,000 and 1,200 (Mech , 
Appendix C) . This is greater than the estimate of 500 to 1,000 made by 
Mech and Rausch (1976) but is based on considerably more data than was 
available to those authors when their estimate was derived in 1973- 

Just south of the peripheral wolf range is an area of greater accessi- 
bility and human density, including a high proportion of intensively 
farmed areas. Occasionally wolves dispersing from either the primary or 
the peripheral range (Mech 1972) find their way into this farming country 
and are ki 1 led . 



Range Restrictions 

Apparently it is the human exploitation of wolves, legal and/or illegal, 
that has prevented their repopulation of Michigan and Wisconsin 
(Hendrickson et al . 1975; Weise et al . 1975) and the agricultural and 
highly settled regions of Minnesota (Mech 1973)- Such exploitation 
probably also prevents saturation of the peripheral range in Minnesota. 
Through 1965 when records were available in Minnesota, an average of 
about 190 wolves per year were bountied there, and for many years an 
additional 50 to 60 were taken annually by State DNR employees. Since 
1965 when the bounty was removed, exact figures have not been available, 
but, including wolves killed in the State's animal -damage-control program 
that replaced the bounty, a comparable number of animals are thought to 
have been taken each year. 

Despite an annual kill of about 20 to 30% of the estimated number of 
wolves in Minnesota, there has been no noticeable decline in the State- 
wide population. This should not be surprising because it has been 
demonstrated in Alaska that annual harvests of 50% and more can be 
sustained by healthy wolf populations (Mech 1970:6*0. Conversely, the 
breeding potential of wolf populations with adequate prey is such that 
without mortality the population could at least double each year. 



Critical Factors 



Four main factors are critical to the long-range survival of the Eastern 
Timber Wolf: (1) availability of adequate wild prey, (2) large tracts of 
wild land with low human densities and minimal accessibility, (3) 
ecologically sound management, and (k) adequate understanding of wolf 
ecology and management. If not for the human element, only the first 
factor would be significant to wolf survival. 

However, nowhere in the U. S., other than Isle Royale National Park, is 



II 



there an area where the Eastern Timber Wolf will not be affected by 
human activity. Isle Royale is unique in that hunting and trapping can 
be almost entirely controlled, whereas on the mainland, laws are difficult 
to enforce. Because of the diversity of human attitude, there will always 
be differences of opinion about the wolf. Wherever people reside in wolf 
country, they will have domestic livestock and/or pets, which may be 
subject to wolf attack. Thus, the combination of the other three factors 
becomes highly important. 

Ecologically sound management includes (l) protection where needed to 
help restore the Eastern Timber Wolf to areas of its origina' range and to 
preserve a naturally functioning population that can serve as a living 
museum, as a scientific subject, and as a reservoir to repopulate 
adjacent areas; (2) depredation control where wolves are killing domestic 
animals; (3) maintenance of wolf population densities at prescribed levels 
in semi -wi lderness areas through a combination of protection and regulated 
taking, so as to minimize depredation on livestock, illegal killing of 
wolves, and vilification of the species; (*t) restocking of wolves into 
suitable areas of their former range, when feasible; (5) continued research 
and monitoring of wolf populations; and ^6) provision of adequate prey 
populations through adequate habitat improvement. 

The Team recommends that in Minnesota complete protection should be afforded 
the wolf throughout its primary range (Zones 1, 2 and 3, Appendix A and B) , 
except in specific cases of documented livestock depredation in Zones 2 and 
3. Because livestock raising in the primary range is minimal, very little, 
if any, taking of wolves there is anticipated. 

The need for a possible exception to this policy is recognized for Zones 
2 and 3, however. It has been found that during a series of severe winters 
a wolf population can contribute strongly to the depletion of local deer 
herds (Mech and Karns, submitted), and then of itself be forced to decrease 
(Mech, submitted). Therefore, in order to help ensure that deer populations, 
and thus wolf numbers, remain high, the Team believes that if over any 3~year 
period deer numbers decline below those necessary to support one wolf per 10 
square miles in Zones 2 or 3, consideration should be given to artificially 
reducing wolf numbers there until the deer herd recovers. 

The same principle could also be applied to Zone 1. However, the Team 
feels that the value of this Zone for allowing wolf numbers to fluctuate 
naturally outweighs the advantage of trying to maintain wolves there at 
maximum densities. Nevertheless, this policy should be reviewed after 
five years. 

One of the most important aspects of the Recovery Plan is the proposal for 
habitat improvement for prey species, especially deer. Generally deer 
habitat improvement means rejuvenation of mature forests through cutting 
and/or fire. Habitat improvement can be extremely expensive, but it should 
be emphasized that besides helping the wolf, such improvement will benefit 



many other species of wildlife, and consumptive and non-consumptive uses of 
the wildlife resources. The high cost, then, should not be considered strictly 
for the benefit of the wolf. 

It is also possible that under extreme circumstances, such as a series of 
severe winters, it may be biologically sound to temporarily reduce or prohibit 
harvesting of various prey species. Members of the Team have detected local 
public sentiment in favor of this approach as applied to deer, beavers, and 
moose. The intent of this sentiment was not to benefit the wolf but rather 
to help increase the numbers of the herbivores, and ultimately to benefit the 
humans that harvest them. However, restricted harvesting when prey numbers 
are below the carrying capacity of their range would also help benefit the wolf. 

It has been brought to the Team's attention that such an approach can be 
misconstrued as a recommendation to "close the deer season to feed the wolves." 
However, since the Team was charged by the Department of Interior to consider 
only what would be best for the long range survival of the wolf , this means 
that the Wolf Recovery Plan should not necessarily consider the deer hunter, 
the forester, recreationist or anyone else. Those considerations will be made 
by administrators having input from both the Team and the general public. 

In order to bolster the prey base of the Minnesota wolf population, the Team 
also recommends considering a re-establishment of the woodland caribou 
( Rangifer tarandus) as an alternate prey species. A remnant caribou herd 
inhabited Minnesota as recently as 1937, (Moyle, 1965) and a large amount 
of bog habitat similar to that in which the last herds lived is still present 
throughout much of northern Minnesota. With one more species of potential prey 
in various local areas, the Minnesota wolf populations would be less subject to 
decline if other prey species decreased. Of special interest as caribou habitat 
are the bog areas north of Upper Red Lake and southwest of International Falls, 
the "Hundred Mile Swamp," and the Culkin Lake area south of Babbitt. If a 
caribou re-establishment program is undertaken, it is possible that some measure 
of local wolf control would be necessary in early years to foster the re-estab- 
lishment effort. 

Because of the amount of misunderstanding about wolf ecology, population 
dynamics, and management, the Team recommends concerted efforts at public 
information and education. These efforts are necessary for the success of 
several aspects of the Plan. Without public support, based on accurate know- 
ledge, the Plan will remain only a paper document. 



Deleted. Reference memorandum dated December 9, 1977 
from Acting Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
to Regional Director, Region 3, U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service. 



PART III 



PLAN OBJECTIVES AND RATIONALE 



This plan addresses itself to the four factors critical to the perpetu- 
ation of the Eastern Timber Wolf outlined above, through the following 
main objectives: (1) to insure the survival of the animal in Minnesota 
by highly regulated management, including the establishment of an 9,827 
square mile sanctuary, and by extensive improvement of the habitat of its 
prey, (2) to attempt re-establishment of at least one viable population 
of Eastern Timber wolves outside Minnesota and Isle Royale. Both will 
require an intensive public education campaign designed to enlighten the 
public about the ecology and management of the wolf. 

Because wolves have survived for so long in Minnesota despite bounties 
and year-around hunting and trapping, there may be a question as to why 
any restrictions need now be placed on the taking of the wolf. However, 
future circumstances are unpredictable and those that now exist could 
change drastically. For example, widespread industrialization, mineral 
exploitation, and general development could threaten much of the wolf's 
remaining range, making regulation increasingly significant to the pop- 
ulations left. Additional roads, railroads, power lines, mines and 
tourist facilities could further carve up much of northern Minnesota. 
This would disrupt the natural repopulation of depleted areas by wolves 
and promote higher human densities which could compete with wolves for 
their wild prey. A conservative approach should be taken when one is 
dealing with the last remaining stronghold of any subspecies. 

Because there is so much misinformation disseminated about the wolf (Van 
Ballenberghe 1974) by both pro and anti-wolf advocates, it is imperative 
that a strong public information program be developed to explain wolf 
ecology and management. The expected result will be much greater public 
understanding and acceptance of an ecologically sound, scientific wolf 
management program. 

For the present, it is important to remember that the wolf is controver- 
sial, so there will be local opposition to any attempt to re-establish 
the animal or afford it any measure of protection. Similarly there will 
be opposition from other quarters to any effort to control the animal, 
although control may be necessary for the good of the animal itself in 
certain areas. If re-establishment of the wolf is accomplished, 
regulated taking of the animal undoubtedly will be necessary in the 
restored range sooner or later (Mech, in press, b). 

For those reasons, it is imperative that re-establishment of the wolf be 
undertaken only after a great deal of thought, background research, 
planning, and consultation with local people -- laymen as well as profes- 
sionals. It must also be realized from the beginning that such investi- 



gations may indicate that re-establishment of the wolf may not be 
prudent . 

Nevertheless, it is important to explore all possibilities and to give 
the highest priority throughout this entire recovery plan to the 
biological and ecological considerations. They are the only ones that 
will be significant 100 years from now. 



Recovery Plan Outline 



Primary Objective: Maintain and re-establish 
viable populations of the Eastern Timber Wolf 
in as much of its former range as is feasible 



1 Insure perpetuation of the Timber Wolf population at levels optimum to 
the varying parts of its present Minnesota range (optimum level includes 
biological carrying capacity and compatibility with man) 

11 Review status of wolf populations in the various parts of the 
current range and readjust management plans as necessary 

111 Obtain accurate knowledge of Timber Wolf numbers, distribution, 
population trends, limiting factors, prey requirements, effects 
on prey including domestic animals 

112 Delineate distinct segments of the Timber Wolf range in 
Minnesota in relation to degree of suppression by man's 
act i vi t ies 

12 Maintain Timber Wolf population at the determined optimum level on 
each part of the range 

121 Demonstrate to the public that the Minnesota wolf population 
is secure and that through ecologically sound management will 
remain secure 

121-1 Publish technical data available on wolf ecology 

121-2 Produce and distribute movies, TV programs, slide series 
and popular literature on the realities of wolf ecology 
and management in Minnesota 

121-3 Explain to interested groups and organizations the facts 
of wolf ecology and management in Minnesota 

121-31 Invite interested groups (pro, con and others) 
to conferences 

121-32 Invite biologists who have studied wolves in 
Minnesota to make presentation 

121-33 Invite press, outdoor writers, TV, radio, etc. 

122 Establish wolf sanctuaries with optimum wolf populations 
(see Appendix A) 



10 



122-1 Allow wolf packs in Wilderness Sanctuary (Zone 1) 

to develop a natural social structure and fluctuate 
in numbers without wolf population management 

122-2 Monitor and adjust habitat, and wolf and prey populations 
to achieve desirable balance in Managed Sanctuaries 
(Zones 2 and 3) (The goal for desired density of wolves 
is 1/10 sq. mi.) 

122-21 Reduce wolf population if and when annual 
monitoring over a 3-year period indicates 
current population might over-utilize prey 
species and jeopardize maintenance of 
optimum wolf population in the future* 

122-22 Increase prey populations by habitat improvement 
or other appropriate management practices 

122-221 Inventory forest acreage to determine 
conifer-hardwood composition in age 
classes and vegetation types 

122-222 Promote adequate hardwood and conifer 

composition in age classes and types to 
provide for maintenance or improvement 
of forest diversity 

122-222-1 Promote logging practices to 
provide adequate supply, 
distribution and age classes 
of hardwoods, with emphasis 
on aspen and birch 

122-222-2 Design and carry out controlled 

burning and other site preparation 
practices to stimulate hardwood 
and conifer regeneration, especially 
aspen and birch where possible 

*If and/or when annual monitoring in Zones 2 and 3 determines 
over a three year period that the population goal of 1 
wolf per 10 square miles is unrealistic or unwise — 
in that such population might over-utilize prey species, 
thus jeopardizing the future wolf population itself -- 
revision of the population goals will be in order and 
expected. Such revision(s) would be obtained by working 
with best available scientific information and the resultant 
goal figure would be approved by the Eastern Timber Wolf 
Recovery Team. This situation might require the reduction 
of the wolf population down to the revised goal population. 



11 



122-222-3 Create and maintain 
well dispersed per- 
manent openings 

122-223 Promote on the Superior National 
Forest increased forest/wildlife 
coordination using the Wildlife 
Composition Guides to provide 
increased habitat inventory 
analysis and habitat manipulation 

122-224 Encourage other public forest 
management agencies to develop 
forest/wildlife coordination 
programs 

122-225 Determine the degree to which lower 
than optimum prey populations are 
the result of habitat deficiencies 
and/or over hunting 

122-23 Provide for the taking by authorized government 

(State or Federal) employees of individual wolves 
killing domestic animals 

122-3 Attempt to re-establish woodland caribou in suitable 
range, if feasible 

122-31 Consult with Canadian caribou biologist to 

determine ecological feasibility of a caribou 
transplant and to select proper release sites 
and season 

122-32 Arrange with Canada to provide caribou 

122-33 Radio- tag, release and monitor caribou 



12 



122-4 Conduct research on the ecology, behavior and habitat 
requirements of deer, moose and beaver 

122-5 Establish total legal protection in Zones 1, 2 and 3 

122-6 Discourage, in the sanctuaries, development, settlement 
and the destruction, disturbance or modification of 
habitat that might reduce wolf populations or restrict 
their recovery 

122-61 Encourage appropriate land use regulations in 
Zones 1, 2 and 3 

122-62 Federal agencies will prepare environmental 

assessments and/or environmental impact state- 
ments to evaluate project impacts on the wolf 
and initiate Section 7 consultation on public 
lands 

122-63 Encourage habitat management compatible with 
wolf ecology 

122-7 Provide concerted law enforcement effort 

122-8 Regulate harvest of prey species to insure sufficient 
surplus for wolf population needs 

122-81 Monitor wolf population 

122-82 Monitor prey populations 

122-83 Reduce harvest of deer, moose, and/or beaver 
if harvesting is demonstrated to be a cause 
of less than optimum numbers 

L23 Maintain current optimum wolf population averaging 1 per 50 
square miles within the forested region Zone 4 outside the 
sanctuaries (see Appendix A) 

123-1 Increase prey populations by habitat improvement or 
other appropriate management practices 

123-2 Provide concerted law enforcement effort 

123-3 Same as 122-23 

123-4 Regulate harvest of prey species and wolves to maintain 
above population goals 



13 



I 



123-41 Monitor wolf population 

123-42 Monitor prey populations 

123-43 Remove annually by hunting and trapping wolves 
in excess of the goal population. Removal 
restricted to November through January 

123-431 Allow the taking of 1 wolf per 200 
square miles during the first year 
of management (100 wolves). This 
assumes an additional annual take 
of 60 wolves under a damage control 
program and an illegal take of 60 
wolves in Zone 4 

123-432 Adjust in subsequent years the take 
up or down to maintain the goal 
density 

123-433 Require registration and tagging of 
all wolves taken and surrender of 
carcasses for research to designated 
government agencies 

123-44 Reduce harvest of deer, moose, and/or beaver 
if harvesting is demonstrated to be a cause 
of less than optimum numbers 

124 Restrict taking of wolves in Zone 5 to authorized government 
employees 

2 Protect and enhance existing wolf numbers and re-establish populations 
if necessary and feasible at optimum levels in Michigan (excluding 
Isle Royale) , Wisconsin and/or Northeastern United States and/ or 
Southern Appalachians Region (see Appendix B) 

21 Determine whether re-establishment is socially and ecologically sound 

211 Consult vegetation and ownership maps, land use maps and plans, 
and local biologists to define and select all suitable areas 
for transplant 

212 Determine potential prey densities in the selected areas 

213 Determine human densities and use patterns in the selected areas 

214 Determine possible impact of transplant on public health 



14 



215 Estimate effect of establishing wolves on other wildlife and 
domestic animals 

216 Determine legal implications of transplant 

22 Determine the feasibility of re-establishing E.T.W. 

221 Select most inaccessible area with adequate food supply and 
minimum human population 

222 Obtain cooperation from appropriate State and Federal agencies 

223 Obtain support of local people 

223-1 Contact selected individuals and key groups for support 
223-2 Publish facts of situation in news media 

224 Obtain approval of key state legislators 

225 Stocking and monitoring (see 23 and 24 for details) 

23 Stock wolves in new areas 

231 Hold public meetings and seek support (see 222, 223 and 224) 

232 Decide whether to reintroduce the Eastern Timber Wolf and 
select area(s) 

233 Obtain permits from appropriate State and Federal agencies 

234 Obtain wolves from nearest viable population 

234-1 Arrange for appropriate agency in Minnesota, Ontario, 
or Quebec to provide wolves 

234-2 Prescribe manner and season of live trapping and handling 
wolves 

234-3 Provide holding pens in capture area 

234-4 Contact trapper to supply wolves 

234-5 Examine, ear- tag, radio- tag and vaccinate wolves 

234-6 Accumulate wolves until 5 or more are obtained 

235 Deliver wolves to release point 

235-1 Arrange shortest and most direct flight 



15 



235-2 Tranquilize wolves 

236 Effect non-traumatic release of wolves 

236-1 Select appropriate release sites 

236-2 Build appropriate pens in release sites 

236-3 Hold wolves on release site for 2 weeks 

236-4 Feed wolves local wild prey 

236-5 Allow wolves to leave pens at will after 2 weeks 

236-6 Consider providing carcasses of wild prey near 
release site 

24 Monitor restocking efforts and population levels in new areas 

241 Train local biologists to radio track 

242 Radio track transplanted wolves daily for first week and 
at intervals of 1 to 2 weeks thereafter 

25 In Upper Michigan and Northern Wisconsin immediately remove 
coyote bounties year round and protect wild canids during any 
big game seasons 

26 Develop and implement plans for habitat improvement and maintenance 
for appropriate prey species to maintain viable wolf populations 

27 Develop management principles and practices to be applied to wolf 
populations when re-established (These should be agreed upon and 
announced before transplants take place) 

3 Continue management to perpetuate natural conditions for the Eastern 
Timber Wolf on Isle Royale National Park, Michigan 

31 Continue to provide complete protection 

32 Permit natural fires to run their course 

33 Continue research on wolf ecology 



16 



RECOVERY PLAN DIAGRAM 



17 



INSURE PlRPETUATinN l)F THE ![MB£0 
■OLF POPULATION AT LEVEL'. Dl'TIWiW 
III Tm[ V<m<lll& PARTS OF ITS PHESEI 
MINNESOTA RANGE (OPT I HUM LEVEl 

INCLUDES uioini.iUL CARHT1HC 
CAPALITT AND CDMPAT ILllL 1 TT W] Til 



range and readjust management 



ange In i«rm« 
legree of supc 










IZ1-JI 


Invite interested groups (pro, ton, 





' Such revision(s) would be 
le resultant goal figure wo 
ualion might require the reducl 







\n_ 


Eittblls 


m 


f sanctuaries with 








Appendu 















wolf and [..-■ 



Invento 


las. 






In age 










1 

122-222-1 * 


'rorote 


logging practices to provide 




supply, distribution and 


pge da 









I types to provide for malnte 



! for the taking by t 



Encourage other public fort 
management agencies to dev« 
forest/wildlife coordinate 



Determine the degrt 



Jesign and carry out 
jurning and other sit 



« ou in suitable range. 





'"-" 






Consult with 


Canadla 


n car 


bou 








logical 


feasibility 








plant and to 


■"»• 


rop r 


"'"" 





124 


Restrict tak 

employees, 


ng of Wives in 
Hornet) government 










1Z3-? 










i a 3~ 3 




123-1 












Provide eonc 


rted law enforcement 




Sane as \22-2 














effort. 






















TZ3-- 






_L 










J- 








123- 


. 
































Hon1 














retlr 


S? 


uy hunting and 




tfc. 


r buvac If h*rv«*tlD( !■ 










1 


















1 




































Alio*, the taking of 1 


olf per 200 




floius 


in subse 


quent years the 




i-'o.i., 


re registration end tagging 


























wolves taken and surrender 










Of management (100 wol 
















rcasses for research to 










of to wolves under a d 


mage control 












.... j 


nated government agencies. 



























































Allow the taking of I hoH per 200 
square miles during the first year 
of nanagement (100 wolves). This 

of 60 wolves under a damage control 

ttltti it, /jam i 



ill 




Consult vegetation a 


jnd plans, and 
areas for 


local biologists to 



determine possible impact of 








ss&aasE— 










1 1 












aa-proprlat* | U t« md 




»— -«■ 




Obtain ap 






















m%2W2Zr , " m 




Publish facts of situation in 



PROTECT AND ENHANCE I 
NUMBERS AND REESTABL! 
IF NECESSARY AMD FEA! 
OPTIMUM LEVELS IN Mil 
IHG ISLE ROVAL). WIS! 
r£RH UNITED ! 
■,Ui.iTilE("l APPALACHIAN' 
flppF,jnl1 R > 



HIGAN (EUCLUD- 
ONSIN ANO/OR 
TATES AND/OR 

REGION (SEE 




1 






25 






[n Upper Michigan and No 


^vTcoyote 




bounties year round and 
wild canids during any b 


ggar* 







26 




Oevel 


p and implenw 


nt plans for 


nab it 


t improvemen' 








te prey species 


to na 


ntatn viable 


wolf populations 



Develop management principles and 
practices to be applied to -olf 



CONTINUE MANAGEMENT TO P[Kf[TUATL 
ATURAL CONDITIONS FOR THE [ASTERN 
IHBER WOLF ON ISLl ROVALE NA11QNAL 
ARK, MICHIGAN. 



RECOVERY PLAN 

EASTERN TIMBER WOLF 




SCHEDULE OF PRIORITIES, RESPONSIBILITIES AND COSTS 



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25 



EASTERN TIMBER WOLF RECOVERY PLAN 
CHECKLIST OF NECESSARY ACTIONS 



SECTION 1. MINNESOTA 

A. RESEARCH AND SURVEY 

1. Demography and ecology of wolf 

2. Delineate segments of range 

3. Status of populations throughout range 
k. Determine causes of low prey densities 

5. Determine conifer-hardwood composition 
and vegetation types 

6. Ecological requirements of prey species 

7. Feasibility of caribou transplant 

8. Monitor wolf population 
9- Monitor prey populations 

B. EDUCATIONAL-ADMINISTRATIVE-POLITICAL ACTIONS 

1. Publish available data 

2. Distribute facts in popular media 

3. Explain facts to interested groups 

k. Establish wolf sanctuary in Minnesota 
CH. HABITAT DEVELOPMENT ACTIONS 

1. Balance habitat and animal populations in 
Zones 2 and 3 

2. Promote logging practices: emphasize aspen & birch 

3. Control burn and stimulate regeneration 
k. Create and maintain openings 

5. Increase forest/wildlife coordination: Superior NF 

6. Increase forest/wildlife coordination: other forests 



UNDERWAY 

AS 
PLANNED 



COMPLETED 



26 



CH. HABITAT DEVELOPMENT ACTIONS (continued) 

7. Improve forest composition to support prey 

8. Maintain and improve conifer cover 

9. Arrange with Canada to provide caribou 

10. Tag, release and monitor caribou 

11. Habitat management compatible with wolf ecology 

CP. PREY REGULATION 

1. Regulate deer, moose and beaver harvest if required 
to maximize their numbers 

CW. WOLF MANAGEMENT ACTIONS 

1. Establish total protection in sanctuary 

2. Allow natural wolf population development in Zone 1 

3. Manage for balanced habitat/prey/wolf populations 
in Zones 2 and 3 

k. Take wolves that kill domestic animals 

5. Encourage development of land use regulations 
in Zones 1 , 2, and 3 

6. EA/EIS to evaluate impact on wolf 

7. Provide concerted law enforcement effort 
D. MAINTENANCE OF WOLF POPULATION AND HABITAT 

1. Zone k forests : i ncrease prey populations by 
habitat improvement 

2. Zone k fori r >ts :provide concerted law enforcement 
effort 

3. Zone k forests . cake wolves that kill domestic 
animals 

A. Zone 4 forests :regulate harvest of prey and wolves 
to maintain population goals (1 wol f /50 sq mi) 

5. Allow taking 1 wolf/200 square miles during 1st year 



27 



D. MAINTENANCE OF WOLF POPULATION AND HABITAT (continued) 

6. Adjust taking of wolf to maintain goal density 

7- Register and tag all wolves taken and surrender 
for research 

8. Restrict taking of wolves to Government employees 
i n Zone 5 

SECTION 2. FORMER RANGE AREAS 

A. RESEARCH AND SURVEY 

1. Consult maps, plans and local biologists 

2. Determine potential prey densities 

3- Determine human densities and use patterns 

*♦. Determine impact on public health 

5. Estimate effect on wildlife and domestic animals 

6. Determine legal implications 

7. Determine if reestabl i shment is socially and 
ecological ly sound 

B. EDUCATIONAL-ADMINISTRATIVE-POLITICAL ACTIONS 

1. Remove coyote bounties in Upper Michigan and 
Northern Wisconsin 

2. Select most inaccessible area with food and 
fewest humans 

3- Obtain cooperation from State and Federal agencies 

k. Obtain support of local people 

5. Contact individuals and key groups for support 

6. Publish facts in local news media 

7. Obtain approval of key State legislatures 

8. Hold public hearings and seek support 

9. Determine if and where to reintroduce wolf 



28 



C. NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT 

1. Arrange for agency to provide wolves 

2. Develop wolf management practices to be employed 

3. Select appropriate release sites 

*♦. Provide holding pens in capture area 

5. Build pens in release sites 

6. Prescribe live trapping and handling methods 
7- Contact trapper to supply wolves 

8. Accumulate 5 or more wolves 
9- Examine, tag, vaccinate wolves 

10. Arrange shortest and most direct flight 

11. Tranquil i ze wolves 

12. Deliver wolves to release point 

13- Hold wolves 2 weeks; feed them local wild prey 
1A. Effect non-traumatic release of wolves 
15- Improve habitat to maintain prey/wolves 

D. FEEDBACK INVESTIGATIONS 

1. Train local biologists to radio track 

2. Radio track according to schedule set 

3. Monitor efforts and population levels in new areas 
SECTION 3- ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK, MICHIGAN 

A. RESEARCH AND SURVEY 

1. Continue research on wolf ecology 

CH. HABITAT DEVELOPMENT 

1. Continue to manage for natural conditions, including 
permitting natural fires 

CW. WOLF MANAGEMENT ACTIONS 

1. Continute to provide complete protection 

29 



PART IV 
ESSENTIAL AREAS 



The tanctuary areas Zones 1, 2 and 3 indicated in Appendix A, plus Isle 
Royale National Park, are considered to be essential areas for the assured 
survival of the Eastern Timber Wolf. These areas provide the space for 
normal growth and movement of established pack units and will supply suf- 
ficient food and cover for the assured su^rvival of the species. 

To describe all of the land within these sanctuary areas as essential 
habitat would be unrealistic. The wolf is a wide ranging animal and is 
reasonably adaptable. As long as its food supply is assured and as long 
as man will let the animal live, it is unreasonable to try to define or 
describe habitat that is essential to its survival. Of far greater im- 
portance is the way land is managed for the wolf's prey. 

Obviously, any human activity that restricts or reduces the carrying 
capacity of prey species will ultimately affect the wolf adversely. The 
maintenance of the present forest products industry and its expansion, 
therefore, is encouraged. Activities or programs that provide forest/ 
wildlife management should be encouraged. Activities that permanently 
remove forest cover are to be discouraged, such as road building, mining, 
resort development and major reservoir construction. State and Federal 
agencies should be encouraged to purchase in-holdings in their project 
areas. Where opportunities exist to expand these areas through purchase, 
it should be done. 

Because of the diverse conditions within each sanctuary, proposed develop- 
ments would have a varying degree of significance. Each must be appraised 
in relation to the specific site for which it is proposed. 

It is especially important to note that any single development may not in 
itself significantly degrade an area as wolf habitat, but that each would 
contribute to the ultimate unsuitability of the area for wolf survival. 
This cumulative effect must always be considered in appraising the 
potential harm of any development in the sanctuary area. 

All proposed Federal and State actions or programs requiring an Environ- 
mental Impact Statement in accordance with Section 202C of the Environmental 
Policy Act of 1969 (P.L. 91-190) should include an analysis of the impact 
of the project proposal on the Eastern Timber Wolf. Projects requiring an 
environmental assessment should include an appraisal of its impact on the 
Eastern Timber Wolf, and measures to mitigate these impacts. 



30 



APPENDIX A 



DESCRIPTION OF ZONES 



ZONE 1 - 4,462 Square Miles 

Beginning at the point of intersection of United States and Canadian boundaries 
in Section 22, Township 71 North, Range 22 West, in Rainy Lake, then proceeding 
along the west side of Sections 22, 27, and 34 in said township to the east side 
of Black Bay Narrows in Black Bay; thence proceeding along the North and East 
shoreline of Black Bay to the Black Bay Portage to Kabetogama Lake; thence south- 
easterly along the Black Bay Portage to Kabetogama Lake; thence southeasterly 
along the southern shoreline of Kabetogama Lake to Moosehorn Point - the junction 
of County Route 122 with Kabetogama Lake; thence southerly along County Route 
122 to the junction with State Highway 53: thence southeasterly along State High- 
way 53 to the junction with County Route 765; thence easterly along County Route 
765 to the junction with Kabetogama Lake in Ash River Bay; thence along the south 
boundary of Section 33 in Township 69 North, Range 19 West, to the junction with 
the Moose River; thence southeasterly along the Moose River to Moose Lake; thence 
along the western shore of Moose Lake to the river between Moose Lake and Long 
Lake; thence along the said river to Long Lake; thence along the east shore of 
Long Lake to the drainage on the southeast side of Long Lake in NE 1/4, Section 
18, Township 67 North, Range 18 West; thence along the said drainage southeasterly 
and subsequently northeasterly to Marion Lake, the drainage being in Section 17 
and 18, Township 67 North, Range 18 West; thence along the west shoreline of 
Marion Lake proceeding southeasterly to the Moose Creek; thence along Moose Creek 
to Flap Creek; thence southeasterly along Flap Creek to the Vermilion River; 
thence southerly along the Vermilion River to Vermilion Lake; thence along the 
Superior National Forest boundary in a southeasterly direction through Vermilion 
Lake passing these points: Oak Narrows, Muskrat Channel, South of Pine Island, 
to Hoodo Point and the junction with County Route 697; thence southeasterly on 
County Route 697 to the junction with State Highway 169; thence easterly along 
State Highway 169 to the junction with State Highway 1; thence easterly along 
State Highway 1 to the junction with the Erie Railroad tracks at Murphy City; 
thence easterly along the Erie Railroad tracks to the junction with Lake Superior 
at Taconite Harbor; thence northeasterly along the North Shore of Lake Superior 
to the Canadian Border; thence westerly along the Canadian border to the point 
of beginning in Rainy Lake. 

ZONE 2 - 1,864 Square Miles 

Beginning at the intersection of the Erie Mining Company Railroad and State 
Highway 1 (Murphy City); thence southeasterly on State Highway 1 to the junction 
with County Road 4; thence southwesterly on County Road 4 to the State Snowmo- 
bile Trail (formerly the Alger-Smith Railroad); thence southwesterly along the 
Snowmobile Trail to the junction with Reserve Mining Company Railroad; thence 
northwesterly along the Railroad to Forest Road 107; thence westerly along Forest 
Road 107 to Forest Road 203; thence westerly along Forest Road 203 to the junction 
with County Route 2; thence in a northerly direction on County Route 2 to the 



31 



junction with Forest Road 122; thence in a westerly direction along Forest 
Road 122 to the junction with the Duluth, Missable and Iron Range Railroad; 
thence in a southwesterly direction along the said railroad tracks to the 
junction with County Route 14; thence in a northwesterly direction along 
County Route \k to the junction with County Route 55; thence in a westerly 
direction along County Route 55 to the junction with County Route bk; thence 
in a southerly direction along County Route kk to the junction with County 
Route 266; thence in a southeasterly direction along County Route 266 and 
subsequently in a westerly direction to the junction with County Road 44; 
thence in a northerly direction on County Road 44 to the junction with Town- 
ship Road 2815; thence westerly along Township Road 2815 to Alden Lake; 
thence northwesterly across Alden Lake to the inlet of the Cloquet River; 
thence northerly along the Cloquet River to the junction with Carrol Trail - 
State Forestry Road; thence west along the Carrol Trail to the junction with 
County Route 4 and County Route 49; thence west along County Route 49 to the 
junction with the Duluth, Winnipeg and Pacific Railroad; thence in a northerly 
direction along said Railroad to the junction with the Whiteface River; thence 
in a northeasterly direction along the Whiteface River to the Whiteface 
Reservoir; thence along the western shore of the Whiteface Reservoir to the 
junction with County Route 340; thence north along County Route 340 to the 
junction with County Route 16; thence east along County Route 16 to the 
junction with County Route 346; thence in a northerly direction along County 
Route 346 to the junction with County Route 569; thence alonq County Route 
569 to the junction with County Route 565; thence in a westerly direction 
along County Route 565 to the junction with County Route 110; thence in a 
westerly direction along County Route 110 to the junction with County Road 
100; thence in a north and subsequent west direction along County Route 100 
to the junction with State Highway 135; thence in a northerly direction along 
State Highway 135 to the junction with State Highway 169 at Tower; thence in 
an easterly direction along the southern boundary of Zone 1 to the point of 
beginning of Zone 2 at the junction of the Erie Railroad Tracks and State 
Highway 1 . 

ZONE 3 - 3,501 Square Miles 

Beginning at the junction of State Highway 11 and State Highway 65; thence 
southeasterly along State Highway 65 to the junction with State Highway 1; 
thence westerly along State Highway 1 to the junction with State Highway 72; 
thence north along State Highway 72 to the junction with an un-numbered 
township road beginning in the northeast corner of Section 25, Township 155 
North, Range 31 West; thence westerly along the said road for approximately 
seven (7) miles to the junction with SFR 95: thence westerly along SFR 95 
and continuing west through the southern boundary of Sections 36 through 31 » 
Township 155 North, Range 33 West, through Sections 36 through 31, Township 
155 North, Range 34 West, through Sections 36 through 31, Township 155 North, 
Range 35 West, through Sections 36 and 35, Township 155 North, Range 36 West 
to the junction with State Highway 89; thence northwesterly along State High- 
way 89 to the junction with County Route 44; thence northerly along County 
Route 44 to the junction with County Route 704; thence northerly along County 
704 to the junction with SFR 49; thence northerly along SFR 49 to the junction 



32 



with SFR 57; thence easterly along SFR 57 to the junction with SFR 63: thence 
south along SFR 63 to the junction with SFR 70; thence easterly along SFR 70 
to the junction with County Route 87; thence easterly along County Route 87 
to the junction with County Route 1; thence south along County Route 1 to the 
junction with County Route 16; thence easterly along County Route 16 to the 
junction with State Highway 72; thence south on State Highway 72 to the junction 
with a gravel road (un-numbered County District Road) on the north side of 
Section 31, Township 158 North, Range 30 West; thence east on said District 
Road to the junction with SFR 62; thence easterly on SFR 62 to the junction 
with SFR 175; thence south on SFR 175 to the junction with County Route 101; 
thence easterly on County Route 101 to the junction with County Route 11; 
thence easterly on County Route 11 to the junction with State Highway 11; 
thence easterly on State Highway 11 to the junction with State Highway 65, 
the point of beginning. 

ZONE k ~ 20,901 Square Miles 

Excluding Zones 1, 2 and 3, all that part of Minnesota north and east of a 
line beginning on State Trunk Highway 48 at the eastern boundary of the state; 
thence westerly along Highway 48 to Interstate Highway 35; thence northerly 
on 1-35 to State Highway 23, thence west one-half mile on Highway 23 to State 
Trunk Highway 18; thence westerly along Highway 18 to State Trunk Highway 65, 
thence northerly on Highway 65 to State Trunk Highway 210; thence westerly 
along Highway 210 to State Trunk Highway 6; thence northerly on State Trunk 
Highway 6 to Emily; thence westerly along County State Aid Highway (CSAH) 1, 
Crow Wing County, to CSAH 2, Cass County; thence westerly along CSAH 2 to 
Pine River; thence northwesterly along State Trunk Highway 371 to Backus; 
thence westerly along State Trunk Highway 87 to U.S. Highway 71; thence 
northerly along U.S. 71 to State Trunk Highway 200; thence northwesterly 
along Highway 200 to County State Aid Highway (CSAH) 2, Clearwater County; 
thence northerly along CSAH 2 to Shevlin; thence along U.S. Highway 2 to 
Bagley; thence northerly along State Trunk Highway 92 to Gully; thence 
northerly along CSAH 2, Polk County, to CSAH 27, Pennington County; thence 
along CSAH 27 to State Trunk Highway 1; thence easterly on Highway 1 to CSAH 
28, Pennington County; thence northerly along CSAH 28 to CSAH 54, Marshall 
County; thence northerly along CSAH 54 to Grygla; thence west and northerly 
along Highway 89 to Roseau; thence northerly along State Trunk Highway 310 
to the Canadian border. 

ZONE 5 - 54,603 Square Miles 

All that part of Minnesota south and west of the line described as the south 
and west border of Zone 4. 



33 



\ 



MAP OF PROPOSED TIMBER WOLF 

MANAGEMENT ZONES IN MINNESOTA 



U 



Thief River Falls 



Red Lake • 




Grand Rapids • 



ZONE SIZES (squirt mll.D 

ZONE 1: 4, 4G2 
ZONE 2; 1, 864 
ZONE 3: 3, 501 

ZONE 4: 20, 901 

ZONE 5: 54, 603 



34 



QUANTITATIVE DESCRIPTION OF ZONES 

The Team advocates dividing the Minnesota wolf range into four zones, with three 
different wolf management strategies among them. Thus we felt it necessary to 
characterize these zones in terms of pertinent factors so as to indicate why 
different management is necessary in different areas. To do so, we consulted 
the Minnesota Land Management Information System (MLMIS) within the University 
of Minnesota's Center for Urban and Regional Affairs (CURA) through Mr. Rodney 
W. Sando. 

To use this system, the boundaries of the proposed Wolf Management Zones were 
plotted on a map of Minnesota at a scale of 1 :500,000. Because the data are 
available for individual ^0-acre parcels described by the Public Land Survey 
(PLS) system, the boundaries of the study area had to be defined within the PLS. 
This was done by defining the township within each wolf zone. Because the wolf 
zone boundaries were irregular, the definition of each analysis site required 
that individual townships be judged in or out of a particular zone by using a 
50 percent rule. Consequently if more than 50 percent of the area of a township 
was within a particular wolf zone the rule placed the ent 1 re township within the 
wolf zone for the analysis. 

Data were available for the entire area of Wolf Zones 1, 2 and 3. Zone *t was not 
entirely covered in the analysis, although a high enough proportion of it was to 
allow an accurate comparison with Zones 1, 2 and 3- Data were available for the 
following counties: Aitkin, Beltrami, Carlton, Clearwater, Cook, Hubbard, 
Koochiching, Lake, Lake-of-the-Woods, Marshall, Roseau and St. Louis. Data were 
not available for Cass, Crow Wing or Pine Counties. 

Data sources were as follows: 

1. Land Use : Based on 1:60,000 aerial photography flown in 1969- 

2. Highway Orientation : Current maps of county highways. 

3. Forest Cover Types : I960 Forest Survey Type Maps from the North Central 
Forest Experiment Station and the Iron Range Resources Rehabilitation 
Commission. 

k. Ownership : Data were obtained from the Minnesota Department of Natural 
Resources current as of 1973. 

5- Human Population : Data were obtained from U. S. Bureau of the Census 1970 
Census Survey. 

Further descriptions of the data sources and methods of collection are available 
in the System documentations available from MLMIS. 

The type of wolf management proposed for Zone k is substantially different from 
that proposed for Zones 1, 2 and 3, so it is the differences between Zone k and 
the other zones that are most important. As stated in the text of the Plan, 
Zone k is generally more accessible and populated, and wolves have a greater 
chance of interacting with human beings there. This is borne out by several 
pieces of data from the computer analysis with the MLMIS. 

35 



Zones 1, 2 and 3 have from 90 to over 99 percent of their land in forest, water 
and marsh, whereas only 83 percent of Zone k is of these types (Table 1). Thus 
17 percent of Zone k is composed of cultivated land, pasture, urban residential 
and other non-wild types of land. Furthermore, these types of land uses are not 
concentrated in one or two certain areas but are spread throughout Zone k. 

Similarly, 30 percent of the kO-acre parcels in Zone *t have paved or gravel roads 
running through them, whereas the figures for Zones 1, 2 and 3 range from 7 to 
19 percent (Table 2). If forest and logging roads could be considered also, the 
difference would be even more striking. This is an excellent measure of the 
difference in accessibility between Zone 4 and the other zones, and it is acces- 
sibility that helps bring wolves and humans into contact. 

In determining the types of management to be proposed for various areas, land 
ownership must also be considered. This is why it is important to note that half 
of Zone h is in private ownership, whereas Zones 1, 2 and 3 have only 19~35 per- 
cent of their land in private holdings, and the rest under public administration 
(Table h) . Generally it is private landowners in wolf areas with whose interests 
the wolves tend to conflict. 

This real and potential conflict between wolves and humans is accented in areas 
having higher human densities. Again, this is where Zone k differs from the 
other three wolf zones. A much higher percent of Zone k has at least 3 people 
per square mile than do the other zones (Table 5). (Strict comparisons of the 
figures in Table 5 are not possible because the sizes of the "civil divisions" 
to which the census data in each density category pertain vary too much. The 
result, however, is to minimize the differences between Zones 1, 2 and 3 and 
Zone k. Despite this, it is clear that a much higher proportion of Zone k has 
a higher human density than most regions of the other zones.) 

Thus in human density, accessibility, land use and land ownership, Zone 4 differs 
substantially from Zones 1, 2 and 3- In all these ways, Zone 4 is less suitable 
for wolf range than are the other zones. 



36 



Table 1.--Land Use 1 (Percent) 



Land Use Wolf Zone 



Forested 

Water 

Marsh .5 J .5 J 6, 8 







Cultivated 0*37 

Urban Residential .4 .5 * 1 

Extractive * .8 * .5 

Pasture 6 Open * 1.1 5 7 

Urban Non-Residential * .2 * .6 

Transportation * * * * 

Total 100 100 100 '00 

Acres 2,853,120 1,122,440 2, 085, 600 10,751 ,280 2 

"Less than .5 percent 

]_/ Data Source: 1969 Aerial Photography 

2/ Less than total area for Zone 4 because data unavailable for Cass, Crow Wing 
and Pine Counties. 



37 



Table 2. — Highway Orientation' (Percent of AO-acre parcels in contact with paved 
or gravel roads) 



Highway Orientati 


ion 






Wolf 


Zone 












1 




2 




3 




k 




Contact Paved 




\ 


. 7 


V 




6 \ 


. '9 


"\ 


. 30 


Contact Gravel 




4 




"J 




"J 




4 




Not in Contact 




93 




84 




81 




70 





Total 100 100 100 100 

Acres 2,853,120 1 , 1 22 ,440 2,085,600 10,751 ,280 2 

]_/ Data Source: Current County Highway Maps 

If Less than total area for Zone k because data unavailable for Cass, Crow Wing 
and Pine Counties. 



38 



Table 3- — Forest Cover Type' (Percent) 



Cover Type 




Wolf 


Zone 






1 


2 


3 


i* 


Non- Fores ted 


21 2 


7 


15 


18 


White, Red & Jack Pine 


32 


7 


6 


5 


Spruce-Fi r 


19 


37 


kk 


23 


Oak-Hickory 











JL 


Elm, Ash, Cottonwood 


JL 
9% 


.5 


2 


5 


Maple-Basswood 


1 


1 


1 


3 


Aspen-Bi rch 


27 


hi 


27 


37 


Unproductive 


* 


1 


5 


J» 


Non-Stocked 








* 


5 



Total 100 100 100 100 

Acres 2,853,120 1,122,^0 2,085,600 10,751 ,28o3 

"Less than .5 percent 

]_/ Data Source: I960 Forest Survey Type Maps, North Central Forest Experiment 
Station. 

2/ Primarily water. 

3/ Less than total area for Zone k because data unavailable for Cass, Crow Wing 
and Pine Counties. 



39 



Table k. — Land Ownership' (Percent) 



Ownership 






Wolf Zone 






1 


2 


3 


4 


Private 


19 


30 


35 


50 


BWCA (Federal) 


30 











National Forests 


31 


31 


1 


5 


BIA 


2 





2 


J» 


Other Federal 


6 





<v 


.5 


State 


10 


]k 


kk 


2k 


DNR Parks 


j. 


JL 


* 


JL 


County 


1 


2k 


13 


13 


Other Publ ic 


1 


1 


5 


3 



Total 100 100 100 100 

Acres 2,853,120 1,122,^0 2,085,600 10,751 ,280 2 

"Less than .5 percent 

J_/ Data Source: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and I RRRC 

2/ Less than total area for Zone k because data unavailable for Cass, Crow Wing 
and Pine Counties. 



ko 



Table 5. --Human Population' (Percent) 



Pop./Sq. Mi. Wolf Zone 



0.0-1.0 57 3*t 7 

1.1-3.0 37 M 73 
3.1-5-0 3*\ 2*\ 6 
5.1-10.0 0V6 V 22 9 ! 




10.0 + 3 J 20 I 5 



Total 100 100 100 100 

Acres 2,853,120 1,122,440 2,085,600 10,751 ,280 2 

]_/ Data Source: 1970 Census Data 

2/ Less than total area for Zone k because data unavailable for cass, Crow Wing 
and Pine Counties. 



k\ 



APPENDIX B 

PAST, PRESENT AND POTENTIAL EASTERN 
TIMBER WOLF RANGE 



Part 1. Areas to be investigated in the Eastern States 
for Eastern Timber Wolf Re-establishment 
Poss ibi 1 i t ies 



Part 2. Map 



k2 



Part 1 



AREAS TO BE INVESTIGATED FOR EASTERN TIMBER 
WOLF REESTABLISHMENT POSSIBILITIES 
(See I tern 2 , page 1*0 



In that part of the United States from which the Eastern Timber Wolf has 
been extirpated, several areas have been delineated that deserve serious 
investigation for rei ntroduct ion possibilities. As this is written, the 
Recovery Team is uncertain concerning the possibilities for ETW reintro- 
duction in most of these areas. 

• 

However, the Team takes cognizance of the desirability for establishing 
and maintaining separate, viable population centers of the ETW; such a 
distribution gives greatest protection against catastrophic loss of last 
remaining population segments and best assures the perpetuation of this 
(or any) endangered species. 

The Team also recognizes that vastly insufficient information exists 
concerning the ecological and social realities of reintroducing the ETW 
into areas from which it has been extirpated for a considerable length 
of time. Thorough studies are needed, prior to any re int roduct ion , that 
would determine the status of prey species, the adequacy of habitat 
factors such as available space and long-term prey food supplies, the 
probable effect on other wildlife populations in the area, the probable 
effect on domestic animals that may exist in or near the area under study, 
the probable reaction of local human residents of the surrounding area 
and the chances that the ETW could survive human antagonists. The Team 
is certain that any reintroduct ion scheme will fail unless the majority 
of the local human population is desirious of such action, and this will, 
in most instances, require that local residents be completely apprised 
of the facts concerning the nature of the ETW as a species, and the facts 
concerning the procedures for making the reintroduct ion and the probable 
effects of such a reintroduct ion . In general, it is recommended that 
biolog i cal /ecolog ical studies be performed prior to investigations into 
social reactions and education attempts. If an area is ecologically un- 
suited to a wolf rei ntroduct ion , there is little point in trying to 
convince local human populations that a reintroduct ion would be a proper 
move. This is not to say that local populations should not be informed 
about ecological studies that may be undertaken or contemplated -- all 
segments of the program should be completely open to public scrutiny 
at a 1 1 times. 

All of the areas recommended for further study have been selected on the 
basis of (a) low or very low human population levels extant within the 
area, and (b) large blocks of public lands make up the areas (except much 
of the land in Maine). These areas are outlined on the map that follows, 
and lettered "A" through "H". The following brief descriptions apply to 
each of these lettered areas: 



^3 



A section of Northeastern Maine, consisting of about 2,500 square 
miles, much of which is uninhabited on a permanent basis. 

Most of Northwestern Maine. A huge area of more than 11,300 square 
miles with a very low population and in which Maine's Baxter State 
Park is located. Most of the land, however, is privately owned. 

White Mountain Area. This area is almost entirely composed of White 
Mountain National Forest. It is a little less than 2,500 square 
miles in extent and contains a low population level. 

The Adirondack Forest Preserve Area of Northern New York. Most of 
this area is occupied by the Adirondack State Forest Preserve, consists 
of approximately 9,375 square miles, and has a low population level. 

Southern Appalachians (Northern Section). Monongahela and George 
Washington National Forests in the Virginia-West Virginia mountain 
region. Most of the area has a low population. 

Southern Appalachians (Southern Section). The main section of the 
Southern Appalachians in Western North Carolina and Eastern Tennessee, 
including smaller portions of Northern Georgia, extreme Western South 
Carolina and Southwestern Virginia. Federal lands here include 
National Forests, National Parks, TVA lands and BIA lands. The entire 
area consists of nearly 1*4,000 square miles. The lowest population 
density section contains about 1,500 persons (about 1 person per 
square mile), and large portions of Great Smoky Mountains National 
Park are free of human inhabitants. 

Upper Peninsula of Michigan. While this area of some 15,000 square 
miles does contain residual wolf population elements, population 
strength is marginal at best. One transplant attempt in 197^ proved 
that, biologically and ecologically, such tra^-ol ants are possible, 
but it also proved that the wolf is socially unacceptable to many 
residents, since all four transplanted wolves died at the hand of 
man. (Weise, et. al. 1975) Further studies that would narrow the 
selection of transplant sites (National Forests, National Lakeshore, 
private lands, etc.) and that would elucidate public acceptance are 
needed . 

Northern Wisconsin. This is an area containing large amounts of public 

lands but sparse human population, where wolves once lived in relative 

abundance and still are occasionally seen. An initial survey is required 

to determine Wisconsin's best existing wolf habitat, followed by ecologica 
studies of specific areas. 



kk 



EASTERN TIMBER WOLF AREA STATUS MAP 




ORIGINAL RANGE OF THE EASTERN 
TIMBER WOLF IN THE UNITED STATES 
(Approximate boundary, from Goldman, 1944) 



CURRENT RANGE OF THE EASTERN 
TIMBER WOLF IN THE UNITED STATES 

1. Northern Minnesota and adjacent Wisconsin 

2. Upper Michigan and Northern Wisconsin 

3. Isle Royale National Park 



PROPOSED EASTERN TIMBER WOLF 
SANCTUARY ZONES IN MINNESOTA 



AREAS TO BE INVESTIGATED FURTHER 
FOR REESTABLISHMENT POSSIBILITIES 
FOR THE EASTERN TIMBER WOLF 

A. Northeastern Maine 

B. Northwestern Maine 

C. White Mountains Area 

D. Adirondack Forest Preserve Area 

E. Southern Appalachians (Northern Section) 

F. Southern Appalachians (Southern Section) 

G. Upper Peninsula of Michigan 
H. Northern Wisconsin 



45 



APPENDIX C 



BACKGROUND DATA 



k6 




Mr. Ralph Bailey, Leader 

Eastern Timber Wolf Recovery Team 

P.O. Box 190 

Marquette, Michigan 49855 



September 11, 1975 
Revised May 13, 1976 



Dear Ralph : 

The following provides the figures and reasoning behind Item No. 
122-2 of the Eastern Timber Wolf Recovery Plan. 

The goal of one wolf per 10 square miles for optimum wolf density 
in Zones 2 and 3 is based on the fact that such a density existed 
in the Superior National Forest as recently as winter 1971-72. 
Although the prey density at that time was unknown, there were 
sufficient prey available to support one wolf per 10 square miles 
until about 1971-72 and to support human harvesting of prey as well. 

It is apparent that deer habitat has been deteriorating throughout 
northern Minnesota because of forest maturation and succession, and 
that this trend must be reversed through logging where permitted, 
and through fire and/or deliberate habitat management where possible, 
The Recovery Plan calls for such habitat improvement, and if this 
is successful, then the goal of one wolf per 10 square miles is 



worth aiming for. 



Sincerely, 




7W. 



L. DAVID MECH 

Wildlife Research Biologist 



Ralph E Bailey, Leader 
jan Department of Natural Resources 
P O Box 190 
Marquette. Ml 49855 



William C Hickling 

U S. Fish Et Wildlife Service 

John W McCormack PO & Courthouse 

Boston. MA 02109 



Robert M Linn 

US National Park Service 

Biological Science Dept 

Michigan Technological University 

Houghton, Ml 49931 



LeRoy Rutske 

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources 

Centennial Building 

St Paul, MN 55155 



Karl Siderns l^~1 L David Mech 

Superior National Forest US Fish Et Wildlife Service 

P O Box 338, North Central Forest Experiment Station 
Duluth, MN 55801 Folwell Avenue 



Ron Nicotera 
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resourc 
Box 450 
Madison, Wl 53701 



Roben E Radtke 

U S Forest Service 

633 West Wisconsin Avenue 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53203 




Mr. Ralph Bailey, Leader 

Eastern Timber Wolf Recovery Team 

P.O. Box 190 

Marquette, Michigan 49855 



September 12, 1975 
Revised May 13, 1976 



Dear Ralph : 

This letter pertains to Item 123-431 of the Recovery Plan, which 
proposes to allow 100 wolves to be taken annually by public hunting 
and trapping in Zone 4. This assumes that an additional 60 will 
be taken by the control program and another 60 illegally. As you 
know, the reason for this item is to try to maintain the wolf population 
in Zone 4 at a desired density of one wolf per 50 square miles . 

Although the present density is unknown in Zone 4 (see letter of 
September 10, revised May 13, 1976, in Appendix), estimates ranging 
from 280 to 410 have been proposed. If it is 410, and if a total 
of 220 wolves is taken, this amounts to 54% of the population. 
Because a wolf pack of 2 to 6 animals can increase by 100% to 400% 
in one year with one litter of 6 pups (Mech 1970) , at least 50% of 
the population must be taken each year merely to maintain the previous 
density. This was demonstrated in Alaska (Mech 1970:64). 

If the population in Zone 4 is actually 280 wolves, or an average 
of one per 75 square miles, then the assumed illega'' kill of 60 
animals, and the assumed control take of 60, would be reduced 
considerably because there would be so few wolves. The recommended 
public take of 100 wolves, plus 40 killed illegally and/or on the 
control, program, would still amount to only 50% of the population. 



Ralph E Bailey. Leader 
gan Department of Natu r al Resources 
PO Box 190 
Marquette. Ml 49855 



William C HicMmg 

US Fish ft Wildlife Service 

John W McCormack PC ft Courthouse 

Roston, MA 02109 



LeRoy Rutske 

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources 

Centennial Building 

St Paul. MN 55155 



Karl Sidents hQ 

Superior National Forest 
P O Box 338 
Duluth, MN 55801 



Robert M Linn 

US National Park Service 

Biological Science Dept 

Michigan Technological University 

'Houghton, Ml 49931 

L David Mech 

US Fish ft Wildlife Service 

North Central Torest Experiment Station 

Folwell Avenue 



Ron Nicotera 

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resource: 

Box 450 

Madison. Wl 53701 



Robert E Radtke 

U S Fprest Service 

633 West Wisconsin Avenue 

Milwaukee. Wisconsin 53203 



As stated in Item 123-432, the actual quotas in the previous item 
must be adjusted from year to year according to estimates of the 
wolf density. These estimates and determination of the general 
population trend can be facilitated by examination of the data on 
number, location, age, and sex of the wolves killed. 

Because a large sanctuary with a high density of wolves is to be 
maintained, a continued dispersal of surplus wolves into Zone 4 is 
anticipated. Thus even if more than the annual surplus of wolves 
were to be taken in Zone 4, the population would be expected to 
rebuild soon. 

Sincerely, ,\ 
* > 





L. DAVID MECH 

Wildlife Research Biologist 



49 




Mr. Ralph Bailey, Leader 

Eastern Timber Wolf Recovery Team 

P.O. Box 190 

Marquette, Michigan 49855 



September 10, 1975 
Revised May 13, 1976 



Dear Ralph: 

This is to document the manner in which the estimates of wolves in 
Minnesota were made for devising various parts of the Eastern 
Timber Wolf Recovery Plan. 

As you are well aware, estimating the numbers, or density, of 
wildlife is difficult at best, and the wolf is one of the hardest 
mammals to count. Wolf studies are underway in four areas of 
Minnesota, including the Superior National Forest, the Beltrami Island 
Wildlife Management Area, the Moose Willow Wildlife Area, and the 
Chippewa National Forest. The intensive areas being studied comprise 
a total of about 7% of the wolf range in Minnesota. 

Unfortunately none of the studies is completed, and one has just 
begun. Thus final figures are not in from any of them. The best 
we can do at present is to project, within broad limits, an estimate 
for Minnesota based on the data now available, understanding that 
such an estimate is subject to change upon the obtaining of additional 
data, or upon a more complete analysis of the present data. Nevertheless, 
I am confident that the actual number of wolves in the State is somewhere 
between the limits given below. 

In winter 1971-72 and 1972-73 the density of wolves in the Superior 
National Forest was estimated at about one per 10 square miles, but 
was thought to be decreasing due to a drastic decline in the deer herd 
(Mech 1973). In fact, in my 1 ,000-square-mile intensive study area in 



Ralph E Bailey. Leader 
gan Department of Natural Resources 
P O Box 1 90 
Marquene, Ml 49855 



William C Hicklmg 

US Fish & Wildlife Service 

John W Mc.Corm.ick P O & Courthouse 

Boston, MA 02109 



Robert M Linn 

U S National Park Service 

Biological Science Dept 

Michigan Technological I imversity 

Houghton. Ml 49931 



LeRoy Rutske 

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources 

Centennial Building 

St Paul. MN 55155 



Karl Sijents CQ i_ David Mech 

Superior National Forest U S Fish fct Wildlife Servu e 

PO Box 338 North Central Forest Experiment St, ition 
Duluth MN 55801 Folwell Avenue 



Ron Nicotera 

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources 

Box 450 

Madison Wl 53701 



Robert E Radtke 

U S Forest Service 

633 West Wisconsin Avenue 

Milwaukee. Wisconsin 53203 



the SNF, the wolf population declined 40% from 1971-72 to 1974-75. 
However, it then increased in 1975-76 to about 80% of the 1971-72 
level or one wolf per 12 square miles (Mech submitted) . The best 
assumption is that this trend reflects actual changes in wolf 
numbers throughout northeastern Minnesota. Applied to the entire 
6,326 square miles of the northeastern part of the Primary Range, 
Zones 1 and 2, this density yields an estimate of 530 wolves for 
that area. 

If one assumes that the observed decline only took place in the 
1,000 square miles, and that the remaining 5,326 square miles still 
supports one wolf per 10 square miles, the upper estimate for this 
area would then be abiout 615 wolves. 

In the northwestern 3,501 square miles of the Primary Range (Zone 3), 
the only wolf density estimate available is from the Beltrami Island 
Wildlife Management area and vicinity, some 1,000 square miles. There 
graduate student Steve Fritts (unpublished) , University of Minnesota, 
had preliminary evidence of a density of about one wolf per 17 square 
miles in winter 1975-76, and an increasing population. Because the 
Beltrami Island study area is fairly accessible and wolf numbers 
apparently have been held down there by human factors, the wolf 
density in the rest of the less accessible northwest probably is not 
lower. Assuming one wolf per 17 square miles for all of Zone 3 gives 
205 wolves. 

Combining the lower estimates for all of the Primary Range, gives 735 
wolves, and the higher estimates, 820. 

In the 20,901-square-mile Peripheral Range (Zone 4) , the task of 
estimating wolf numbers is much more difficult because the wolf 
density is so variable. In some areas there are no wolves, whereas 
in the Moose Willow area the density of one pack was about one wolf 
per 13 square miles in 1974-75 (Berg, Minn. DNR, unpublished). Wolf 
packs are known to inhabit several other areas of the Peripheral Range, 
but no density figures are available for them. Only educated guesses 
can be made for the entire area, and mine follow: assuming an average 
of one wolf per 20 square miles for some 5,000 square miles of Peripheral 
Range, and an average of one per 100 square miles for the remaining 
15,901 square miles, this gives an estimate of 410 wolves. Even a low 
average estimate of one wolf per 75 square miles for all the Peripheral 
Range would mean there are about 280 wolves there. 



51 



Combining figures for the Primary and Peripheral Ranges gives an 
estimate of from about 1,000 to 1,200 wolves for Minnesota. Again 
it should be stressed that this is a preliminary and rough estimate, 
but the best we have at present. 



Sincerely, 

L. DAVID MECH 

Wildlife Research Biologist 



52 



I 



■ 




May 19, 1976 



Mr. Ralph E. Bailey, Leader 

Michigan Department of Natural Resources 

P.O. Box 190 

Marquette, MI 49855 

Dear Ralph: 

The Eastern Timber Wolf Recovery Plan recommends certain actions to 
protect livestock farmers from timber wolf predation. This letter is submitted 
to provide some background information on the nature of the relationship between 
wolves and the men who live within the wolf range. 

In recent years, persons writing of the timber wolf tend to ridicule the 
"big, bad wolf" image that was given this animal in the past. Hopefully, this 
is only the other extreme and a new attitude closer to the truth will develop. 

To an individual farmer attempting to make a living for himself and his 
family, the timber wolf can be, in effect, a very bad animal. It matters not 
that 99 percent of the area of the contiguous United States has no wolves nor 
that the loss of livestock to wolves is an extremely minute fraction of the 
country's total livestock production. What matters is that the wolf can destroy 
the difference between success and failure for that farmer. The timber wolf has 
received a bad name because he hurts the livestock raiser in the same way that a 
hold-up man hurts you. 

The wolf has played a crucial role in American history wherever settlements 
advanced the frontier. By the mid-1600' s bounty laws had been passed in almost 
every one of the American colonies. In some places, payments equaled the budget 
for all other purposes, (l) 

In the days before hunting licenses supplied funds for bounty payments the 
problem must have been serious to warrant such an expenditure of funds. Other 
attempts to alleviate livestock losses resulted in hiring hunters by the day to 
shoot wolves and waiving personal property taxes for those people who kept 



(l) The Story of American Hunting and Firearms. Outdoor Life. McGraw Hill. 



1959. 

Ralph E Bailey. Leader 
Department of Natural Resources 
P O Box 190 
Marquette. Ml 49855 



William C Hicklmg 

U S Fish £t Wildlife Servir.e 

John W MrCormack PO & Courthouse 

Boston. MA 02109 



LeHo/ Hutski- 
Minnesota Departmen' uf Natural Resot 
Centennial BuildTtg 

St Paul. MN 551 55 



Karl SidentS ^3 

Superior National Fores! 
P O Box 338 
Duluth. MN 55801 



Robert M Linn 

U S National Park Service 

Biological Science Dept 

Michigan Technological University 

Houghton, Ml 49931 

L David Met i 

U S Fish Et Wildlife Servu e 

North Central Forest Experiment Station 

Folwell Avenue 



Ron Nicotera 

Wis, onstn Department of Natural Resource 

Box 450 

Madison. Wl 53701 



Robert E Radtke 

U S Forest Service 

633 West Wisconsin Avenue 

Milwaukee Wisconsin 53203 



-2- 



hounds capable of killing wolves. The Cape Cod area of Massachusetts seriously- 
considered building high wooden fences around settlements just to keep out 
wolves. 

Old records give adequate testimony to the seriousness of wolf predation 
to early settlers who had to use every resource to meet the problem. 

In the West, as buffalo herds were depleted and the plains were turned to 
cattle grazing land, the wolf did not disappear but began to prey heavily on 
livestock. The problem was severe enough for local livestock associations to 
offer their own bounties of $35 to $50 in addition to existing county, state, 
and federal bounties. This kind of money, directly from the pockets of stockmen 
rather than from taxpayers, can only indicate a real problem. 

As late as 1918, the president of the New Mexico College of Agriculture 
estimated an annual loss of 34»000 cattle and 165,000 sheep to wolves in that 
state. 

The grey wolf was eventually exterminated from the West — but only after 
widespread poisoning campaigns were in effect for many years. No doubt the 
livestock industry could have succeeded with something less than total destruc- 
tion of the wolf but that it did take place attests to something more valid 
than a Little Red Riding Hood Complex. 

The battle between Minnesota farmers and predators has been largely 
confined to coyotes in the recent past, since control efforts and lack of 
protection had restricted timber wolves to the wilderness areas of northeastern 
Minnesota where they could exist in relative security. 

With increased protection in much of the wolf range and finally total 
protection under the Endangered Species Act, the timber wolf is expanding 
beyond the wilderness areas and is once again becoming a liability to stock 
growers . 

A map on the next page shows the distribution of sheep in northern 
Minnesota during 1968-69. Although many of the farmers have since switched to 
beef calf production, the map remains valid for depicting farming areas. The 
timber wolf population in proximity to these areas must be maintained at a 
compatible level or severe conflicts will arise that are of no benefit to the 
wolf or those who seek his complete protection. 

The wolf is an integral part of our wilderness environment. It is 
necessary to a natural balance in wilderness ecology. However, in our current 
fascination with this animal, we must not forget that outside of the wilderness 
the view of large wolf populations as a menace to livestock raising is NOT 
folklore or misconception. 

Sincerely, 

LEROY RUTSKE 
Wildlife Specialist 
Minnesota DNR 



LR/tk ^ 




*° c *.. ./ N .?^ > . .„ i-- A t>SPN. I i "*f 






rUg. . iJistribation of sheep in northern Minnesota 

source: 19^9 State Farm Census, USDA Statistical Reporting ^rvir« 

Wolf Range According to Minn. Dept. of Natural Resources 

55 



APPENDIX D 



MINORITY REPORT 



56 




EASTERN TIMBER WOLF 
RECOVERY TEAM 

P.O. Box 190 
Marquette, Ml. 49855 




September 23, 1975 



Mr. Ralph E. Bailey, Chairman 
Timber Wolf Recovery Team 
P. 0. Box 190 
Marquette, Michigan 49855 

Dear Ralph: 



As a member of the Eastern Timber Wolf Recovery Team, I 
file a statement w*ith the Team that presents a difference in 
a minority report. 



would like to 
recommendations 



As you know, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources petitioned 
the U.S. Department of the Interior in October of 1974 to exclude Minnesota 
from the range over which the eastern timber wolf is considered endangered. 
Evidence was cited to substantiate Minnesota's position that the timber wolf 
was neither threatened or endangered within the state. 

While serving on the Recovery Team I have re-asserted this position. 
Evidence presented during deliberations of the Team has not weakened Minnesota's 
petition but has strengthened it. Please put me on record as recommending the 
total declassification of the timber wolf within Minnesota. 

I would also like to go on record as opposing the establishment of a 
timber wolf sanctuary in Koochiching and Lake of the Woods Counties. If 
Minnesota's petition to declassify the wolf is not accepted and wolf sanctuaries 
within the state are required, the sanctuary designated by the Recovery Team 
for most of Cook, Lake and St. Louis Counties is more than adequate. 

The proposed sanctuary in Koochiching and Lake of the Woods Counties is 
surrounded by livestock-raising areas and wolves dispersing from it will be a 



Ralph E Bijilev. Leader 
Department of Natu'Hi f-c.-s<, 
PO B.jx 190 
MarauPlle Ml 4985^ 



LePoy Huit 
Mir ,nesot.t D«p«*rrrrprn ,,t Is. .- 
Center,! ,,.i , 
St Paul. Mr, rjbl 



Willi*).' 1 il, ► H, 



57 



,1 ii ,| M I inn 

■ ' . ' . . ' ' ... . 
i >l 

I ,„ v i 

, 1 i ,■■,.., Mi .■ .'i ■ ■ 



St i li Mf, n'.KM 



H.ii , Nicotera 

_1,.|..irtmi-nt (it Natural Resource 
Box 4&0 
Madison Wl b3/01 



1 1 il iert (- Radtke 

U S f- nti'st Service 
o t.t Wmsi Wisconsin Avenue 
Milwaukee Wis, onsm 53203 



■2- 



continual management problem. The inaccessible interior of this area will 
provide sufficient security for a normal wolf population without the sanctuary 
status. Providing complete protection to the perimeter areas will increase the 
wolf population above an acceptable socio-economic level and will increase 
local public hostility toward wolf management programs. 



Please make these views a part of the Team Report. 

Since,relv, 



£(& 




.CjU*- 



LEROY RUTSKE 
Wildlife Specialist 



LHRrpmt 



58 



APPENDIX E 
CORRESPONDENCE 



Part 1. List of Agencies, Organizations and Individuals 
Who Were Sent Copies of the First Draft for 
Review, and Comment 

Part 2. Comments on Draft Plan 



59 



I 
I 
I 
I 



CORRESPONDENCE 



Copies of the first draft of the Recovery Plan were sent to the following 
individuals, groups and agencies for review: 



Dr. Durward Al len 

Dept. of Forestry and Conservation 

Purdue University 

Lafayette, Indiana *47907 

Mr. Ulysses S. St. Arnold 
Bureau of Indian Affairs 
Room 3070, Interior Building 
Washington, D. C. 202*40 



Dr. Ray Anderson 
Dept. of Wildlife Ecology 
University of Wisconsin 
Stevens Point, Wisconsin 5***+8l 

Mr. James L. Biggane, Commissioner 
Department of Environmental Conservation 
50 Wolf Road 
Albany, New York 12201 



Mr. Ed Brigham 

North Midwest Regional Office 

National Audubon Society 

R.R. tik 

Red Wing, Minnesota 55066 



Mr. Merle Brooks, Superintendent 

Voyageur National Park 

Box 50 

International Falls, Minnesota 566*49 



CWD 

Canadian Wolf Defenders 
Box 3*+80 "D" 
Edmonton, Alberta 
T5L *4J3 



Dr. Robert E. Chambers 
Dept. of Forest Zoology 
State University of New York 
Syracuse, New York 13210 



Dr. Eugene V. Coan 

Office of the Executive Director 

Sierra Club, Mills Tower 

San Francisco, California 9*+10*4 



Dr. Robert Cook 
Wildlife Department 
University of Wisconsin 
Green Bay, Wisconsin 5*4300 



Mr. Bernard W. Corson, Director 

Fish and Game Department 

3*4 Bridge Street 

Concord, New Hampshire 03301 



Wal lace C . Dayton 

Big Game Club 

Room 505, Peavey Building 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 55*402 



Dr. Malcolm Coulter 

Associate Director for Wildlife 

School of Forest Resources 

Nutting Hal 1 

University of Maine 

Orono, Maine 0*4*473 

Dr. James E. Deacon, Prof, of Biology 
The Ecological Society of America 
Department of Biology 
University of Nevada 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89109 



60 



Mr. Anthony S. Earl 

Wisconsin DNR 

Box 450 

Madison, Wisconsin 53701 

Mr. Bernard Fensterwald, Jr 
910-l6th Street NW 
Friends of Animals, Inc. 
Washington, D. C. 20006 



Dr. Fred G. Evenden , Executive Director 
The Wildlife Society, Suite S-I76 
3900 Wisconsin Avenue NW 
Washington, D. C. 20016 

Mr. Stuart Free, Chief 

Bureau of Wi ldl i fe 

N.Y.S. Dept . of Environmental Cons. 

50 Wolf Road 

Albany, New York 12201 



Dr. Dan Frenzel 

Dept. of Entomology, Fisheries & Wildl 

University of Minnesota 

St. Paul, Minnesota 55108 



Mr. Steve Fritts 

Norris Camp 

Box 114 

Minnesota Game & Fish Department 

Roosevelt, Minnesota 56673 



Mr. Tom Garrett 

Wildlife Conservation Director 

Friends of the Earth 

620 C Street SE 

Washington, D. C. 20003 



Dr. John Grandy, Executive Director 
Defenders of Wildlife 
2000 North Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 20036 



Mr. Neal G. Guse 

Chief, Division of Natural Resources 

National Park Service 

Room 3310, Interior Building 

Washington, D. C. 20240 



Colonel Kenneth Hampton 
Conservation Liaison Officer 
National Wildlife Federation 
I4l2-I6th Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 20036 



Mr. Roger Harbin 

Route #2, Box 747 

Rapid River, Michigan ^9878 



Mr. Michael L. Harris 

New England News 

Main Street 

North Chichester, New Hampshire 03258 

Mr. Granville Hinton, Commissioner 
Department of Conservation 
261 1 W. End Avenue 
Nashville, Tennessee 37203 

Dr. Peter Jordan 
Wildlife Department 
University of Minnesota 
St. Paul, Minnesota 55108 



Mr. James E. Harrington 

Department of Natural and Economic Resources 

P.O. Box 27687 

Raleigh, North Carolina 27611 

Mr. Robert L. Herbst, Director 

Minnesota DNR 

Centennial Building 

St. Paul, Minnesota 55155 

HOWL 

Help Our Wolves Live 

P.O. Box 35203 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 55435 

Mr. Sam Jorgensen 
1107 Lamplighter Drive 
River Heights, Utah 24321 



61 



Mr. Edward F. Kehoe, Commissioner 
Fish and Game Department 
Agency of Environmental Conservation 
Montpelier, Vermont 05602 

Mr. Donaldson Koons, Commissioner 
Department of Conservation 
State Office Building 
Augusta, Maine 04330 

Mr. M. K. Lauritsen, Supervisor 
Ottawa National Forest 
I ronwood , Michigan 49938 



Ms. Harriet Lykken 

Wildlife Task Force 

Sierra Club, North Star Chapter 

4600 Emerson Avenue S. 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 55409 

Mr. Benny Martin 

State Conservationist 

USDA 

Soil Conservation Service 

Box 985, Federal Square Station 

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17108 

Dr. Robert McCabe, Chairman 
Dept. of Wildlife Ecology 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 53706 



Dr. Eric Klinghammer 

North America Wildlife Park Foundation 

Battleground, Indiana 47920 



Mr. Ira S. Latimer, Jr. 

West Virginia Dept. of Natural Resources 
1800 Washington Street East 
Charleston, West Virginia 26305 

Dr. Thomas E. Lovejoy, Prog. Administrator 
World Wildl i f e Fund 
91 0-1 7th Street NW, Suite 619 
Washington, D.C. 20006 

Mr. Maynard F. Marsh, Commissioner 
Dept. of Inland Fisheries & Game 
State Office Building 
Augusta, Maine 04330 



Mr. John Mathison, Wildlife Biologist 
Chippewa National Forest 
Cass Lake, Minnesota 56633 



Minnesota Chapter, The Wildlife Society 
c/o Dr. Peter A. Jordan 
Wildlife Department 
University of Minnesota 
St. Paul , Minnesota 55108 



Minnesota Conservation Federation 
Room 2l8C, 790 Cleveland Ave. South 
St. Paul, Minnesota 55116 



Minnesota Livestock Breeders Assoc 
c/o Mr. Ray Palmby 
107 Fourth Street 
Lakefield, Minnesota 56150 



Minnesota Trappers Association 
517 E. Gustavus Avenue 
Fergus Falls, Minnesota 56537 



The Honorable Willard Munger 

Chairman, Environment & Natural 

Resources Committee 

House of Representatives 

State Capital 

St. Paul , Minnesota 55155 



Mr. Cliff Morrow, Director 
Hunting and Conservation Department 
National Rifle Association 
1600 Rhode Island Avenue NW 
Washington, D.C. 20036 

National Audubon Society 

950 Thi rd Avenue 

New York, New York 10022 



62 



Supervisor 

Nicolei National Forest 
Federal Bui lding 
Rhinelander, Wisconsin 54521 

North American Assoc, for the 
Preservation of Predatory Animals 
Mountain Place 
Doyle, Cal ifornia 961 1 

L. F. Ohmann, Director 

North Central Forest Exp. Station 

Folwel 1 Avenue 

St. Paul, Minnesota 55101 



Mr. Tony Norcera, East Coast Coordinator 
North American Association for the 
Preservation of Predatory Animals, Inc. 
Brooklyn, New York 11230 

NAWS 

North American Wolf Society 
167 Cameo Gardens 
Willimantic, Connecticut 06226 

Mr. Richard R. Olendroff 
Wildlife Management Biologist 
Di vis ion of Wi ldl i fe 
Bureau of Land Management 
Room 5550, Interior Building 
Washington, D. C. 20240 



Dr. Sigurd Olson 

Ely 

Minnesota 55731 



Mr. Ray L. Outcelt 
302 McKinley Avenue 
Niagra, Wisconsin 54151 



Chester F. Phelps, Executive Director Dr. Douglass Pimlott 

Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries Department of Zoology 

4010 W. Broad Street University of Toronto 

Box 11104 Toronto, Ontario 

Richmond, Virginia 23230 Canada 



Mr. Daniel Poole, President 
Wildlife Management Institute 
709 Wire Bui lding 
Washington, D. C. 20005 



Mr. Frederick C. Pullman, President 

Boone and Crockett Club 

c/o The Northern Trust Company 

50 South LaSalle Street 

Chicago, I 1 1 inois 60690 



Mr. Merwyn Reed, Supervisor 
Hiawatha National Forest 
Escanaba, Michigan 49829 



Mr. Tom Resler, Project Leader 
Bureau of Land Management 
Federal Bui Id ing 
Duluth, Minnesota 55801 

Dr. Wi 1 1 Sandstrom 

2451 Silver Lake Road 

New Brighton, Minnesota 55112 



Mr. Lewis Regenstein, Exec. Vice Pres 
Funds for Animals, Inc. 
1765 P Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 20036 

Dr. William L. Robinson 
Biology Department 
Northern Michigan University 
Marguette, Michigan 49855 

The Honorable Edward Schrom 

Chairman, Game & Fish Subcommittee 

Minnesota State Senate 

State Capitol 

St. Paul , Minnesota 55155 



63 



Mr. Maitland Sharpe 
Environmental Affairs Director 
The Izaak Walton League of America 
1800 North Kent Street, Suite 806 
Arlington, Virginia 22209 

Mr. Donald D. Strode 

Acting Director of Wildlife Management 

U. S. Forest Service 

Washington, D. C. 20250 

Joe D. Tanner, Commissioner 
Department of Natural Resources 
270 Washington, St. SW 
Atlanta, Georgia 30334 



Mr. H. B. Simpson 
Bureau of Indian Affairs 
Minneapolis Area Office 
831 2nd Avenue South 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55402 

Dr. Howard A. Tanner, Director 
Michigan DNR 

Stevens T. Mason Building 
Lansing, Michigan 48926 

Mr. James Torrence, Supervisor 
Superior National Forest 
P.O. Box 338 
Duluth, Minnesota 55801 



Mr. Merlin Tuttle, Curator of Mammals 

Milwaukee Public Museum 

800 West Wei Is 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 



United Northern Sportsmen 
316 West Ideal Street 
Duluth, Minnesota 5581 1 



Dr. Victor Van Ballenberghe 
Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game 
333 Raspberry Road 
Anchorage, Alaska 99502 



Virginia Sportsmen's Club 

Box 718 

Virginia, Minnesota 55972 



WCSRC 

The Wild Canid Survival and Research 

Center Wolf Sanctuary 

P.O. Box 16204 

St. Louis, Missouri 63105 



Ms . Jane Col in 

Dept. of Ecology S Behaviorial Biology 

University of Minnesota 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 55402 



Dr. Rolf Peterson 
Dept. of Biological Sciences 
Michigan Technological University 
Houghton, Michigan 49931 



Upper Peninsula Environmental Coalition 

P.O. Box 34 

Houghton, Michigan 49931 



64 



COMMENTS ON DRAFT PLAN 



The first draft of the Recovery Plan was sent to eighty-two different agencies, 
organizations and individuals for critical review and comment. Fifty-nine 
responses were received. As a result of these comments, the Plan was revised 
in several places and the Team's objectives and rationale clarified. 

It was impractical to completely catalog all of the thoughts and ideas ex- 
pressed by the respondents. For the reader's convenience, however, a general 
summary of these comments is here provided plus Team comments where it seemed 
appropriate. Copies of the letters of response are available through the 
Regional Director, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Federal Building, Fort 
Snelling, Twin Cities, Minnesota 55H1. 



COMMENT 



NUMBER OF SUCH 
COMMENTS 



RESPONSE 



Generally favorable to Plan 2k 

Generally unfavorable to Plan 2 

Opposed to logging in BWCA I 

Supports logging in BWCA 1 

Fire practices OK in BWCA 1 

Agree with "threatened" category 7 
in Minnesota 

Supports reestabl i shment in former 7 
range 

Unfavorable to NW Sanctuary 6 

(Zone 3) 

Oppose changing "endangered" status 3 
of wolves in Minnesota 

State consultants should be appointed 1 
to Team if particular State wants a 
transplant 

Double cost estimates in A&B - 1 

Sect ion 11 

Accumulate more than 5 wolves 1 



Thank you 

No comment 

Not part of Plan 

Not part of Plan 

Not part of Plan 

No comment 

No comment 



Adjustments were made 
in Zone 3 

Do not concur - see Plan - 
"Recommended Classification" 

Particular State would 
assume lead role with 
Team's support 

Team feels costs are 
adequate 

Good idea, if more than 
five can be accumulated 
quickly enough 



65 



COMMENT 

Attempt to condition wolves 
to avoid traps and poisons 



NUMBER OF SUCH 
COMMENTS 



1 



RESPONSE 

Good research project, 
however, too detailed 
for Plan 



Supports sanctuary areas 

Proposes mediation board to advise 
on settling disputes in wolf 
management 

Wolf population dynamics model 
for Minnesota 



No comment 

Team fel t this could 
be an important step 
in actual implementation 

This could be produced 
as specific item under 
I I I in Plan 



Need rationale for caribou 
introduct ion 



What will closing or adjusting 
the Minnesota deer season do? 

The problem is habi tat and 
emphasis should be on improv- 
ing habi tat 

A deer population of 10 per square 
mile does not agree with Mech's 
correspondence on PP 37, App. C - 
(draft plan) 10 deer per square 
mile is greater density than 
recommended for sanctuaries (8/mi.) 

Prey species other than deer, moose 
and beaver which occur in other 
parts of the historic range should 
be addressed 



Valid - will expand on 
the caribou rationale 
in the narrative 

Covered in Appendix C 



Plan recognizes this 



No longer appropriate 
in revised Plan 



Any proposed reintroduct ion 
will be based on a complete 
ecological analysis. See 
Item 21 as covered in Plan 



What could be the possible effect 
on human health of a transplant 

Question primary objective of Plan. 

a) Suggest primary goal should be 
declass if icat ion 

b) Reestablishing population 
outside of Minnesota should 
be primary objective 

c) Believes primary objective should 
be at least one natural population 



Rabies - Echn i noccocus 



Obtaining objective would 
result in declassification 



We consider this only 
part of the Plan 



We consider this only 
part of the Plan 



66 



COMMENT 



NUMBER OF SUCH 
COMMENTS 



RESPONSE 



Critical habitat determinations 
should include actions permissible 
and prohibited within the critical 
habitat zone 
a) Define restrictions 



See revised narrative 
on critical habitat 
in Plan 



b) Would reestabl i shment of release 
sites be considered for designa- 
tion as critical habitat 

Will there be a conflict for food 
between the coyote and wolves that 
may be introduced? 

States should be consulted prior 
to (possible) rei ntroduct ion 

Impact of wolf introduction should 
be considered 



To be determined 



May be a conflict, but 
will be evaluated - 
See I tern 215 

Covered under item 222 



Covered in Plan - 
Item 215 



What provisions for follow-up - 
tracking system, recaptive, replace- 
ment of batteries in transmitters, 
etc. 



Covered under monitoring 
items in Plan 



Costs of Plan high 



Introduction modified 
to explain costs and 
benef i ts 



Use soil information for habitat 
improvement actions 

Determine carrying capacity of 
the range for deer and moose 



How would wolves be removed in 
Zone 3 if deer numbers decline 
below those necessary to support 
one wolf/10 sq. mile? Who should 
make this decision? 



Plan assumes this 



Research and surveys 
proposed will provide 
an estimate of carrying 
capaci ty 

Team recommends how 
and when wolves will 
be removed 



Goal of maximizing moose 
populations rather vague 



Plan cannot become 
too deta i led 



67 



COMMENT 



NUMBER OF SUCH 
COMMENTS 



RESPONSE 



Moose - wolf - human interactions 
in Zone 1-2-3 should be considered 

Critical habitat for wolf in 
Plan describes the most serious 
long term threat to Minnesota 
wolf populations - permanent 
changes in land use patterns 
which increase human population 
in Zone 1-2-3 

Pay for predation losses 



Michigan and Wisconsin should 
enhance and protect existing 
wolf populations by restrict- 
ing harvest of other species 

What degree of local support 
by what interests is needed 
for reestabl i shment? 



1 



Covered in revised 
Plan, Item 122-83 

Concur 



Unfavorable experience 
elsewhere indicates this 
to be inappropriate 

Plan revised to cover, 
see I tern 25 



To be determined locally 



Allow for EIS in timing and 
budget 

Give more emphasis to 
taxonomic question 

Would removal of protection 
outside the primary range 
(sanctuary) decrease 
opposition to total protec- 
tion wi th in? 



Determined by individual 
agency 

The taxonomic question 
is being studied. 

To do so would not be 
in the best interest 
of the animal 



Prorate or assign some habitat 
improvement costs to the 
benefit of hunters, timber 
management, and other 
resources 



Introduction to plan 
modified to explain 



Consider every possibility 
in preference to "govern- 
ment hunters" 

Voyageur National Park 
should be treated as Isle 
Royale National Park 



Plan has such a provision 
except where and when more 
precise control is necessary 

Under revised Plan this 
would be no different from 
Zone 1 and need not be 
considered separately 



68 



COMMENT 

Techniques to achieve goals 
are not detailed 



NUMBER OF SUCH 
• COMMENTS 

3 



RESPONSE 

Team was to select broad 
goals, and not specific 
detai 1 s 



The charge of the Team not 
gi ven 

Need to develop habitat and 
wolf management programs in 
wolf re-establishment areas 



Added to revised Plan 



Added to revised Plan 



Political and social factors 
considered over biological 
cons iderat ions 



See Preface 



Biological considerations 
considered over political 
and social considerations 



See Preface 



The Minnesota DNR should be 
listed as lead agency for 
caribou introduction 



Corrected in 
revised Plan 



Is the entire Upper Peninsula 
of Michigan potential wolf 
range as described 



How v/i 1 1 the Plan affect the 
Indian right to hunt free of 
State control 



Biological ly, all but 
a smal 1 part of the 
Upper Peninsula may 
be considered potential 
wolf range 

This must be 
legal ly determined 



Lack of public involvement 
may be detrimental to Plan 

Relationship between Canadian 
and United States wolf popula- 
tion not explained 

What is suitable habitat for 
wolves 



See Preface and I tern 
121-3 

Team did not believe 
much detail was required 



See "Critical Areas" 
and "Critical Factors" 
sect ions 



Discuss local ownership in 
primary range to aid in 
assessment 



See revised Plan 



69 



COMMENT 

Address the Plan to protecting 
and improving the carrying 
capacity of the wolf 

At Isle Royale, include 
research into habitat 



NUMBER OF SUCH 
COMMENTS 



1 



RESPONSE 

Team feels this is 
adequately covered 
by the Plan 

Given in I tern 3 - 33 



Have several conferences 
for explaining wolf ecology 

Mention laws and responsibilities 
to strengthen law enforcement 

Plan is inconsistent in amount 
of detail provided 



Strengthen Critical Habitat 
section by identifying 
additional critical elements 



Included in revised 
Plan 

Is part of implementation 
not in Plan 

Team concurs but pro- 
vided detail to clarify 
certain sections 

See revised Critical 
Area narrative 



Believe wolf is neither 
"endangered" nor "threatened" 

Believe additional studies and 
expenditures of funds on the 
wolf are unnecessary in 
Mi nnesota 



Team disagrees. See 
Recommended Classification 

Team disagrees 



Extensive deer habitat im- 
provement may be necessary 
in Zone 3 

Suggests including the 
Northwest Angle in Zone k 

Supports control of wolves 
killing domestic animals 

Propose farmers have the right 
to protect their domestic 
animals from wolves 

Feel that a strong I & E effort 
will be necessary to insure 
success of new release and for 
proper management in Minnesota 



The Plan includes this 
provi s ion 

The Plan includes this 

Team concurs 



Team believes control 
over taking of animals 
must be control led 

Team concurs 



70 



COMMENT 



NUMBER OF SUCH 
COMMENTS 



RESPONSE 



Agrees that wolves should not 
be allowed to increase beyond 
ability of prey to support them 

Feels farmers should have the 
right to kill wolves killing 
thei r 1 i vestock 



1 



Team concurs 



The Team believes control 
by Government control 
agents is preferable - 
see Item 122-23 



Species should be either classified 
as "endangered" or "threatened" or 
not at all, regardless of State 
it's in 



No comment 



Population goals for predator is 
exceedingly difficult to check 
because censuring is very difficult 

Land ownership complex - objectives 
of owners might be different from 
Plan 



Difficult but possible 



True 



Establishment within former range 
is incomplete in the Plan 



Reestabl i shment in all 
of former range is not 
feas i ble 



Questionable that sufficient funds 
will be developed for cutting and 
burning needed and that great 
opposition can be avoided in such 
activities in important recreation 
area 



No comment 



Needs to be some assurance that 
monitoring wolf, deer and depredations 
on livestock will be continued 



This is assumed 



Agree with necessity to maintain a 
reduced wolf population in peripheral 
zone 



No comment 



Plan should state explicity what hunt- 
ing methods would be permitted and 
emphasize prohibition of poisons, 
snaring, and shooting from aircraft 

Since coyotes probably are being 
trapped, wolf trapping may need to 
be permitted, too, but best method 
for controlling wolf numbers would 
be to restrict wolf kill to shooting 
during fall deer season 



Poisoning, snaring and 
shooting from aircraft 
are illegal in Minnesota 



Team disagrees 



71 



-COMMENT 

Needs to be some system for 
marking legally taken wolf 
pelts, so they can legally 
enter wolf pelt market 

Support concept of caribou 
transplant 

Support regulation of prey 
harvest when population levels 
fall, indicating a necessity 
for wolf recovery 

Wolves do, indeed, pose real 
threat to some human activities 
Over-protection in some areas 
could cause undue increase of 
hostility toward wolf 

Primary objective on page 8 
(draft plan) has goals too 
broad, political and costly 

Nowhere is there an adequate 
ecological discussion of 
reasons for reestabl i shment 



NUMBER OF SUCH 
COMMENTS 



1 



RESPONSE 



This will be possible 



Team concurs 



Team concurs 



Team concurs 



Team disagrees 



See Critical Factors. 
Ecological studies 
are called for in the 
Plan 



Should reconsider reestabl i shment 
as impractical 

Justifications for many actions 
are inadequate 

Wolf sanctuary is not justified 
wel 1 enough 

Wolf population should seek its 
own level in sanctuaries - i.e. 
no optimum goal 

Area requiring treatments under 
Items 122-112-1 , 2, 3 & 122-122 
(draft plan) should be given 

122-31 (draft plan) may be beyond 
the scope of the agencies 



Team disagrees 



No comment 



See "Critical Factors" 



Team disagrees for 
Zones 2 and 3, but 
agrees for Zone 1 

Not within the scope 
of the Plan 



No comment 



72 



COMMENT _ 

Can prey populations be 
monitored accurately over 
large areas 

Not enough detail in 
223, 22*4 

Should cite Stenlund (1955) 
and Van Ballenberghe ( 1 97^) 

Van Ballenberghe and Mech 
not in Bibl iography 

Minnesota would welcome Endangered 
Species funding for habitat manage- 
ment but not to detriment of other 
endangered species 

Increasing wolves in NW sanctuary 
would increase livestock depredation 
problems and reduce deer herd there 

NE sanctuary should be inviolate 
to prevent confusion - i.e. no 
taking of wolves even for livestock 
control 



NUMBER OF SUCH 
COMMENTS 



1 



RESPONSE 



Accurately enough 



Not within the scope 
of the Plan 

Van Bal lenberghe ( 1 97^) 
in revised Plan 

Included in revision 



Concur 



Plan provides checks 
on this 



Team believes that 
where proven losses 
of livestock occur, 
the offending animals 
should be eliminated 



Recommends clarification of 
chronology of habitat manage- 
ment programs, wolf control, 
and closing deer season 

Land use trend in NE Minnesota 
is toward protection 

Plan's objective seems to be to 
justify reclassification to 
"threatened" 



Plan revision has done 
this 



No comment 



No comment 



Surprised to find a minority 
report 

Sympathetic with minority 
opi nion 

Public opinion sections need 
more feedback 



No comment 



No comment 



No comment 



73 



COMMENT 

Only one person from Minnesota 
represented on Team 



NUMBER OF SUCH 
COMMENTS 



Disagree with total protection 
except in BWCA and Voyagers Park 

Close deer season one year 

Investigate protectionist 
groups 

Stop cutting cedar in deeryards 

Stop herbiciding forests, road 
sides and power lines 

Are 1,520 wolves necessary to 
insure survival of species 

Manipulation of habitat con- 
tradicts goal of naturally 
fluctuating population 



Items 123-1, 123-^, and )23-kk 
(draft plan) contradict each 
other 

Recommendation to create 
openings contradicts re- 
commendations against 
permanently removing 
forest cover 



What are the jurisdictional, 
administrative, and economic 
aspects of introducing wolves 
into territories not now 
occupied by wolves 



RESPONSE 

The Team was to be an 
autonomous group and 
not expected to re- 
present any area or 
agency. Three Minn- 
esota residents are 
on the Team 

Team disagrees 

No comment 
No comment 

No comment 
No comment 

Approximately, yes 



Manipulation of habitat 
is considered essential 
where goal is maximum 
wolf population 

Not appropriate to 
revised Plan 



Small forest openings 
are assets to prey 
species. A permanent 
removal of the forest 
for floodings, mines, 
etc . , i s a d i f ferent 
matter 

Introductions into other 
States will, of course, 
have to have the approval 
of the appropriate State 
agencies. Economics, etc 
will be a part of the 
advance studies. 



7k 



COMMENT 

What type oi continuing censuses 
of wolves and prey species will 
be established to serve as a 
basis for future proposed 
management judgments and 
pract ices? 



NUMBER OF SUCH 
COMMENTS 



1 



RESPONSE 

This will be handled 
largely by cooperative 
efforts between State 
and Federal agencies. 
The type of census ing 
wi 1 1 vary as needs 
dictate 



How do you intent to ex- 
tensively improve habitat 
over vast areas which are 
inherently less productive 
than others? 



See Item 122-22 



Have you considered adequately 
the effects of removing the 
wolf from the "threatened" or 
"endangered" lists in the lower 
^8? 

We wonder about the economics, 
practical and biological impact 
of expanding wolf populations 
into vast areas that would 
require tremendous costs 

Is it desirable to try and maintain 
a wolf density of 1/10 mile? Would 
it be easier to maintain a population 
of 1/20 miles which would probably 
result in less wolf-people conflicts? 



Are caribou habitat requirements 
similar to that required by deer 
and moose? 

In order to repatriate wolves, 
a very large land block would 
have to be closed to trapping 
and some kind of hunting. It 
is doubtful that hunters and 
landowners would agree 



Team is not proposing 
removal 



These things wi 1 1 
be further considered 
for each potential 
release area 



Team directed to develop 
the recovery Plan based 
on biological consider- 
ations - other consider- 
ation to be made by 
agencies responsible for 
the actions 

To be determined 



I ssue partial ly 
addressed in revised 
Plan - See I tern 25 



75 



CO MMENT 

A mass transfer of wolves 
from one region to another 
appears unacceptable be- 
cause of possible genetic 
consequences 



NUMBER OF SUCH 
COMMENTS 



1 



RESPONSE 

Team is aware there may 
be some taxonomical 
differences and this 
is address in revised 
Plan - See I terns 21 & 
22 



Suggest adopting a non- 
management alternative by 
keeping Man out of the wolves' 
territory rather than claim- 
ing the land as Man's 
territory and moving the 
wolves out 

Recommendation by team to re- 
classify the Eastern Timber 
wolf as a "threatened" species 
runs counter to the basic 
assumptions of the Endangered 
Species Act of 1973. Act was 
created to insure protection 
of endangered species through- 
out the U. S. and the world. 

The purpose of the Recovery Team 
is also to participate in pro- 
tection and restoration of a 
species to a point where the 
species is no longer "endangered" 
or "threatened". To deplete the 
last remnant population of wolves 
is contrary to the mandate of 
the Recovery Team 

Concurs with rei nt roduct ion to 
suitable areas, but thorough 
action for planning, consultation, 
and public relations should be 
targeted a year or two in advance 

Recovery Plan should devote more 
discussion to funding, education, 
and local action prior to re- 
introduction 



This may be ideal , 
but not real ist ic 
because Man has al- 
ready invaded the 
wolves present domain 



Changes in status do 
not reduce legal pro- 
tection. If species 
is classified under 
the Act as being either 
"endangered" or "threat- 
ened", it is afforded 
the same protection 
under the Act. 

The Team has not 
recommended this 



Team concurs 



Plan does address these 
items in a general manner. 
When a State makes the 
initial decision to re- 
introduce, these items 
should be addressed 
specifically and in detail 



76 



COMMENT 



NUMBER OF SUCH 
COMMENTS 



RESPONSE 



Should provide adequate law 
enforcement to protect wolves. 
Should be the highest priority 



Recovery Plan condones illegal 
taking of 60 wolves 



Plan addresses enforce- 
ment effort. See I tern 
122-7 

The 60 wolves' figure 
was an estimate based 
on knowledge gathered 
over the past two years 
The Team does not con- 
done illegal taking of 
wolves and would expect 
the number to drop with 
additional law enforce- 
ment effort. We are 
simply taking into 
account the illegal 
take that does, un- 
fortunately, occur 



77 



APPENDIX F 



LITERATURE CITED 



Anderson, R. K. and R. P. Thiel. 1975. Status Determination of the 

Timber Wolf in Wisconsin, Emphasizing the Nicolet National Forest, 

Forest County, Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, 

April 25, 1975 (typewritten). 

Cahalane, V. H. 1964. A Preliminary Study of Distribution and Numbers 
of Cougar, Grizzly and Wolf in North America. N. Y. Zool . Soc. 
12 pp. 

Goldman, E. A. 1944. The Wolves of North America, Part II. Classifi- 
cation of Wolves. The Am. Wildl. Instit., Washington, D. C. 389-636 

Hendrickson, J., W. L. Robinson and L. D. Mech . 1975- Status of the 
Wolf in Michigan, 1973- Am. Midland Naturalist 94(1): 226-232. 

Hoskinson, R. L. and L. D. Mech. Submitted. White-Tailed Deer Migration 
and Its Role in Wolf Predation. 

Jolicoeur, P. 1959- Multivariate Geographical Variation in the Wolf 
Canis lupus L. Evol . 13: 283~99. 

Kelsall, J. P. I968. The Migratory Barren Ground Caribou of Canada. 
Can. Wildl. Serv., Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 340 pp. 

Mech, L. D. 1970. The Wolf. Natural History Press, Doubleday Publishing 
Co. , N. Y. 384 pp. 

Mech, L. D. 1971. Wolves, Coyotes and Dogs. p. 19~22 J_n M . M. Nelson 
(Ed.) The White-Tailed Deer in Minnesota. 88 pp. 

Mech, L. D. 1972. Spacing and Possible Mechanisms of Population Regula- 
tion in Wolves. Am. Zool. 12:9 (abstract). 

Mech, L. D. 1973- Wolf Numbers in the Superior National Forest of 

Minnesota. USDA For. Serv. Res. Rept. NC-97. No. Cent. For. Exp. 
Sta., St. Paul, Minnesota. 10 pp. 

Mech, L. D. 1974a. Canis lupus . Mammalian Species 37- Am. Soc. of 
Mamma 1 og i sts . 6 pp. 

Mech. L. D. 1974b. Current Techniques in the Study of Elusive Wilderness 
Carnivores. Proc. Xlth Int. Congress of Game Biologists (Stockholm). 
315-322. 



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Mech, L. D. 1975. Disproportionate Sex Ratios in Wolf Pups. J. Wildl. 
Mgmt. CO . 

Mech, L. D. 1976. Population Trend and Winter Deer Consumption on a 
Minnesota Wolf Pack. Proc. Predator-Prey Symposium. Missoula. 

Mech, L. D. In Press. Factors to be Considered in Re-establishing Wolves 
in the Wild. Proc. 1975. Symp. on Behavior and Ecology of Wolves. 
Wilmington, N.C. 

Mech, L. D. Submitted. Productivity, Mortality and Population Trend in 
Wolves from Northeastern Minnesota. 

Mech, L. D. and L. D. Frenzel . 1971. Ecological Studies of the Timber 
Wolf in Northeastern Minnesota. USDA For. Serv. Res. Repot. NC-52. 
No. Cent. For. Exp. Sta., St. Paul, Minnesota. 62 pp. 

Mech, L. D. and P. D. Karns. Submitted. The Role of the Wolf in a 
Deer Decline in the Superior National Forest. 

Mech, L. D. and R. A. Rausch. 1975- Status of the Wolf in the United 
States, 1973. Proc. First Meeting IUCN-SSC Wolf Specialist Group. 

Moyle, J. B. (Ed.). 1965. Big Game in Minnesota. Minn. Dept . Cons. 
Tech. Bui . No. 9. 231 pp. 

Peterson, R. 0. and D. L. Allen. 1975. Ecological Studies on the Wolf 
on Isle Royale. Annual Rept. 197^-75. 20 pp. (mimeo) . 

Rausch, R. L. 1953- On the Status of Some Arctic Mammals. Arctic 
6:91 - 1 48. 

Seal, U. S., L. D. Mech and V. Van Bal lenberghe. 1975- Blood Analyses 
of Wolf Pups and Their Ecological and Metabolic Interpretation. 
J. Mammal. 56(l):64-75. 

Van Bal lenberghe, V. 197^. Wolf Management in Minnesota: An Endangered 

Species Case History. Trans. N. Amer. Wildl. Nat. Res. Conf. 39 : 31 3~320 

Van Bal lenberghe, V. and L. D. Mech. 1975- Weights, Growth and Survival 
of Timber Wolf Pups in Minnesota. J. Mammal. 56 (1 ) :*t*t-63 . 

Van Bal lenberghe, V., A. W. Erickson, D. Byman. 1975- Ecology of the 

Timber Wolf in Northeastern Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs. ^3.^ PP- 

Weise, T. F., W. L. Robinson, R. A. Hook and L. D. Mech. 1975- An 
Experimental Translocation of the Eastern Timber Wolf. Audubon 
Cons. Rept. No. 5- USD I , Fish and Wildlife Service, Twin Cities, 
Minnesota. 28 pp. 



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